Working effectively with culturally diverse clients and co workers

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Women’s health policy in Australia was realised in the year 1989.policy was introduced taking into account the well-being of all the Australian women and being committed to provide them with better health care facility. Approach has been to provide the priorities to two things significantly-one was to address current and future health whereas the other focuses on structure of fundamental ways by which the society impacts the women’s health. However, after the revising of the policy in the year 2010, the policy has still certain limitations. Despite of the significant change made by the Australian Government in the women’s health policy, the major challenges that the policy was facing is to address the inequalities, persisting between the women in Australia especially the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, encounter particularly more terrible health than the overall public (National Women’s Health Policy 2010, 2015). A scope of socially built determinants can affect in light of the capacity of a few gatherings of Australian women to get to the assets expected to keep up great health. A key continuous health test is to address these disparities. Some health issues, for instance, danger variables, for example, heftiness and psychological well-being especially nervousness and melancholy have ended up expanding issues for women in the course of the most recent two decades.

Challenges in the National Health Policy of Australia:

National health policy in Australia should concentrate more on gender equality as it has failed to do that in past few years. Moreover, the women population, which includes Aboriginal and Torres Islander women (ATSI), women of culturally, and linguistically background, socio-economically disadvantaged women, women from rural and remote areas, older women and those women who live alone in residential aged care facilities have been facing major challenges in the health concerns, which the government has also failed in achievement (National Women’s Health Policy 2010, 2015). The policy also overlooked to address the issue of health inequalities and Socio Economic disadvantage. The major concerns, which the policy overlooks, are:

  1. Anticipation of ceaseless maladies through the control of danger variables; focusing on perpetual ailment, for example, cardiovascular sickness, diabetes and growth, and additionally hazard components, for example, heftiness, sustenance, physical latency, liquor and tobacco utilization. The approach likewise supports a clearer comprehension of the connection of women’s lives, including the obstructions that forestall women taking up healthier way of life practices.
  2. Emotional wellness and health; focusing on nervousness, sadness and suicide.
  3. Sexual and conceptive health; focusing on access to data and administrations identifying with sexual health, regenerative health, safe sex works on, screening and maternal health. The significance of the health of moms preceding origination, amid pregnancy and in the post-natal period can have a significant and long haul affect all alone health and that of their youngsters.
  4. Sound maturing; focusing on muscular-skeletal conditions, inability and dementia. The approach highlights that the social, monetary and ecological conditions under which women live and age can influence their experience of maturity.

In expansive measure, a hefty portion of the late state exercises has served to enhance access. In the range of health scope, states have made critical advances. States have been on the front line of an extensive variety of protection commands that have served to give guaranteed women in some states scope for contraceptives, direct access to OB/GYNs without a referral, and compulsory scope of a wide scope of key screening administrations of significance to women all through their lifespans (Service, 2015). Most low-pay pregnant women are qualified for pre-birth care scope under Medicaid and numerous states have exploited more prominent government adaptability to widen Medicaid qualification principles that permit more low-salary folks to fit the bill for scope. Medicaid has additionally been utilized as an critical vehicle to enhance access to family arranging administrations for low-salary women in numerous states; and another government law gives expresses the chance to expand scope to uninsured low-salary women with bosom or cervical disease. It likewise gives noteworthy monetary security to women who are seniors or have inabilities.

Health protection scope is a basic consider making human services moderate and open to women. Among the 97 million women ages 19 to 64 dwelling in the U.S., most had some type of scope in 2013. Then again, crevices in private division and freely supported projects left more than one in six women uninsured. This factsheet surveys significant wellsprings of scope for women dwelling in the U.S. in 2013 (the latest year that information is accessible from the US Bureau of the Census), for the year preceding, the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA’s) significant scope extension and talks about the feasible changes and effect of the law on women’s scope in future years.


In June 1987, the Minister for Community Services and Health, Dr Neal Blewett, selected a Special Adviser, Ms Liza Newby, to coordinate the advancement of a National Women’s Health Policy. In October of that year, the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Chamber (AHMAC) secured a Subcommittee on Women and Health to report to it and to the Australian Health Ministers’ Conference (AHMC) on matters influencing the health of women. The Commonwealth, State, Territory and non-government individuals from the Subcommittee worked with the Special Adviser to build up the arrangement. In February 1988 Women’s health: a structure for change. A talk paper for group remark and reaction was issued. The paper laid out a structure for change, and based on health concerns needs, which women had recognized in different State arrangement surveys, conferences, meetings and exploration. However, the common opinion or purview from all the categories of women was avoided, which could have been included in the policymaking. That would have helped the policy to be more effective and would have been more effective with overall aspects and conditions of women in all the aspects (Women’s health, 2015).

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The report of the Better Health Commission (1986) and the consequent Health for all Australians report embraced to the Australian Health Pastors (1988) underscore the need to change disparities in health status and in access to health administrations by the socially and monetarily impeded. The meetings on the National Plan for Women recognized women’s health and women’s entrance to health administrations as a significant issue for women and of considerably more noteworthy concern to Aboriginal, ethnic and confined women. Noteworthy change in the health of women needs an agreeable also, composed approach by Commonwealth, State and Territory governments, open and private health administrations, proficient and union associations, and the group (Armstrong, Gillespie, Leeder, Rubin, & Russell, 2007).

Contents of the policy:

The Women’s Health Policy is in view of a comprehension of health inside a social connection as accentuated by the World Health Association and supported by the Australian Government in its national strategy ‘Health for all Australians’. This perspective perceives that (NATIONAL WOMEN’S HEALTH POLICY, 2011):

  • Health is controlled by a wide scope of social, ecological, financial and natural elements;
  • Contrasts in health status and health results are connected to sexual orientation, age, financial status, ethnicity, incapacity, area and environment;
  • Health advancement, ailment anticipation, value of access to suitable and moderate administrations, and reinforcing the essential health awareness framework are important, alongside high quality disease treatment administrations; and
  • Data, discussion and group advancement are vital components of the health methodology.
  1. Women’s health strategy must envelop the greater part of a woman’s lifespan, furthermore, mirror women’s different parts in Australian culture, not simply their conceptive part.
  2. Women’s health strategy must plan to advance investment that is more prominent by women in choice making about health administrations and health strategy, as both shoppers and suppliers.
  3. Women’s health strategy must perceive women’s rights, as health care buyers, to be treated with poise in a domain, which accommodates security, educated assent and secrecy.
  4. Women’s health approach must recognize that educated choices about health and human services require available data, which is properly focused for diverse financial, instructive and social gatherings.
  5. Women’s health approach must be in view of precise information and exploration concerning women’s health, women’s perspectives about health, also, procedures which most adequately address women’s health needs.

Components of the National Women’s Health Policy:

The suggestions for executing the National Women’s Health Arrangement are taking into account the five need activity ranges that were affirmed by women in the conferences and entries. They moreover adjust to universal and national health strategy methods of insight, activities and needs. In the Policy report the destinations and coveted results for every activity range are expressed, and bolstered by the suggestions and proposed usage approaches (Cox, 2010).

The National Women’s Health Policy suggestions incorporate recommendations for:

– A National Women’s Health Program; and

– Activity in different projects or in different parts directed by the Region, States and Territories.

The National Women’s Health Program (NWHP) is proposed for a starting five-year period as a Commonwealth-State-Territory cost imparted system. Subsidizing suggestions identify with the need regions for activity with an accentuation on the recognized health issues for women.

Activity in different projects or parts is notwithstanding the suggestions for subsidizing under the National Women’s Health Program. These further suggestions of the National Women’s Health Policy are for advancement and execution inside States, Domains and the Commonwealth to attain to both short and long haul enhancements in health administrations for women. Various these suggestions oblige another approach, and not so much more financing (NATIONAL WOMEN’S HEALTH POLICY, 2011).

Synopsis of proposals in need zones for activity

Need territory no.1: Improvements in health administrations for women

NWHP financing proposals are proposed for undertakings to:

– add to a system of imaginative group based and controlled administrations and extraordinary projects in doctor’s facilities which address some then again the majority of a scope of distinguished issues. Samples could incorporate enlisting a multidisciplinary group to give data, administrations and exercises identifying with menopause for either non-English talking women or women from non-English talking foundations or to give directing backing to female exploited people of viciousness;

– Research extended parts for medicinal services experts and their compensation, for example, different options for charge for-administration;

– secure quality confirmation guidelines and results in discussion with women in different ranges, for example, healing centre and group maternity administrations and break and bolster administrations for women as carers;

– create nearby women’s health arrangements in view of a composed essential human services approach.

The extra suggestions identify with the exceptional needs of country women, carers, young women, more seasoned women, women at work, Aboriginal women, NESB women, and women with handicaps, enhanced participation between parts which have an influence on health; the privileges of clients of health and related administrations and issues of educated assent; sex issues and roughness; the proceeded with execution of disease avoidance and health advancement crusades and the improvement of new approaches.

Need range no.2: Provision of health data for women.

NWHP financing suggestions are proposed for ventures to:

– add to a women’s health data method, especially for distraught gatherings of women, in distinguishment of the requirement for social and phonetic affectability in materials;

– plan, distribute and appropriate data and training materials concentrating on concurred need regions. Themes may incorporate choices for ripeness control, pregnancy and postnatal wretchedness, incontinence, and the proper utilization of meds;

– distinguish need regions and impalement women’s health training furthermore, avoidance crusades which would utilize radio, TV, ethnic and women’s print media, social insurance suppliers, health focuses, schools and working environments;

– create bundles for consideration in self-improvement program for young women and young men on women’s health issues of pertinence to youngsters, to incorporate issues, for example, sexuality, viciousness, and a positive mental self-portrait;

– assemble women’s health workshops biennially.

Extra suggestions identify with enhancing and growing current data procurement and dispersal, adding to a national health interpretation administration, supporting current activities on aggressive behavior at home, activities to build women’s comprehension of what’s more, support in medicinal services exploration, and successful trade of data crosswise over government divisions (Women’s Health Insurance Coverage, 2015).

Need territory no.3: Research and information gathering on women’s health

NWHP financing proposals are proposed to:

-bolster various particular examination extends in key territories such

As similar levels of medicinal intercession, egg. Caesarean area, hysterectomy, sedative medicine rates; assessment trials of intercessions in essential consideration settings which add to enhanced health results for women; and extended assessment of current screening for breast and cervical tumours and the needs of carers;

– bolster social research in women’s health. Samples of points

Proposed incorporate sexual ill-use and long haul psychological well-being, anticipation of incontinence, over medicalization of typical life occasions and life stresses, and conventional methods for watching over more established Aboriginal women;

– build up an arrangement of health status markers which are delicate to women’s health issues; and

-survey health enactment.

Extra suggestions identify with analysing existing health exploration subsidizing sources with a perspective to expanding stipends relating to women’s health issues; creating and utilizing proper women’s health markers; more extensive investigation of existing and new information; and

Utilizing different overviews to upgrade comprehension of health issues and the consideration of sexual orientation data in all information bases.

Need region no. 4:

Women’s investment in choice making on health

NWHP subsidizing proposals are proposed to:

– backing women’s health associations;

-urge women to take part in health administrations choice

-making by creating model mindfulness bundles and creative ventures; and

-enhance job value in the health workforce.

Extra suggestions identify with expanding women’s cooperation in choice making as specialists; as individuals from choice making sheets and councils; as customers; and in arrangement, program what’s more, research at all levels. It has additionally been prescribed to build or extend women’s health or proportionate units.

Need zone no.5:

Training and instruction for compelling health care

NWHP subsidizing suggestions are proposed to:

– proceed with instruction in women’s health though health could not care fewer experts.

Extra suggestions identify with including modules and courses on women’s health in undergrad and postgraduate curricula for all health experts; contact by instructive organizations with health experts and customers in creating courses; curricula also, modules; including a scope of handy encounters (Women’s Policy, Research & Resource Links, 2015). This include

  • the dynamic interest and educated assent of women, counting in group settings in the preparation of restorative specialists;
  • creating a joint working gathering to create composed national systems in health proficient tertiary preparing for women for combination into the National Plan of Action on Women in Education;
  • Further advancement of proceeding instruction for essential health awareness labourers, carers and unpaid labourers.


The extent of state-level approaches influencing women’s entrance to human services is truly broad. States have been on the cutting edge of a extensive variety of protection commands that have served to give protected women in some states scope for contraceptives, direct access to OB/GYNs without a referral, and required scope of a wide scope of key screening administrations of significance to women all through their lifespans Likewise, there has been some key enactment at the state level that has brought about confined access to specific administrations, and in different ranges that are vital for women, there has been restricted activity. For instance, access to foetus removal administrations has been progressively restricted by arrangements that force holding up periods, oppressive regulations on premature birth suppliers, and confinements on teenager access without parental assent.

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Likewise, in numerous imperative ranges, for example, encouraging access to crisis contraception on the other hand commands on critical screening administrations for normal diseases, for example, chlamydia, states have been generally dormant. Subsequently, access to human services administrations is still dangerous for some women in the United States.


NATIONAL WOMEN’S HEALTH POLICY. (2011, Feb 7). Retrieved from

National Women’s Health Policy 2010. (2015, Apr 11). Retrieved from$File/NWHP_access_final.pdf

Women’s Health Insurance Coverage. (2015, Apr 11). Retrieved from

Women’s health. (2015, Apr 11). Retrieved from

Women’s health. (2015, Apr 11). Retrieved from The RACGP Curriculum for Australian General Practice 2011:

Women’s Policy, Research & Resource Links. (2015, Apr 11). Retrieved from

Armstrong, B. K., Gillespie, J. A., Leeder, S. R., Rubin, G. L., & Russell, L. M. (2007). Challenges in health and health care for Australia. Retrieved from

Cox, D. (2010, Dec 30). Women Critical of new health policy. Retrieved from

Family, K. (2003). Women’s Access to Care:A State-Level Analysis of Key Health Policies. Retrieved from




Cultural awareness is about realising that people belong to a diverse range of cultures and that they will, accordingly hold different values, behave in different ways, have different ways of viewing the world and different approaches to the way they live their lives.

Cultural awareness is about having the resources to relate positively to people from a diverse range of cultural backgrounds and appreciate the contribution that different groups make to a rich and dynamic society.

Male domination

Case summary: An Arab woman had just given birth and needed blood drawn from a male lab technician. Her husband is not happy with this and does not allow that. Finally, he makes his wife completely cover up and give blood.

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Cuture needs: Arab women are mysterious, because of their strict religious beliefs, they rarely show their faces. Even in street encounters, and it will certainly be gown, veil, wrapped up, and never easy to speak with outsiders. In Arab, for pregnancy or gynecological needs, women prefer a female doctor, however. In Arab culture, women are reluctant to discuss these concerns with men. For Arab families, honor is one of the highest values. Since family honor is dependent on female purity, extreme modesty and sexual segregation must be maintained at all times. Male nurses should not be assigned to female Muslim patients. In many parts of the world, female purity and modesty are major values. In this instance his sense of responsibility and need to protect her modesty from very much an “intrusive” health care experience for the most part could be curbed by a simple sign placed on the door that says “Please Knock before entering, this patient observes modest dress and requires the announcement of your presence.” This would help communicate to the patient and her husband that

we understand and wish to honor your modesty. This is empowering for the family. The rudeness or sense of oppression of the pt. the nurses might have felt would be understandable. However, when ever patients. or their families are rude or pushy we only need ask ourselves …. What is the underlying motive behind rudeness …. The answer is fear.

Impact: In this case, the lab technician draws blood successfully. However, it done with most of the patient covered. This is not the perfect way to draw blood in this situation. We have to protect the patient, ensure the safety of the phlebotomist or nurse drawing the blood and lead to a successful blood draw. If draws blood with most of the patient covered, it is not safety. It would be a risk of infection.

Measure: Lack of culture understanding would create cultural conflicts and hostility. Get to know the specific culture and understand it. If we know the culture before we get the patient, we can get things ready and do the things in the best way. In this case, if they know the Arab culture before they meet the patient, they can sent a female lab technician at first. Then can avoid the husband being unhappy and get more benefits for the treatment. The patient and her family would be more cooperative. Try to find Arab staff to assist if possible. It can be the same with Muslim patients.

Pain management

Case summary: A middle-aged Chinese patient refused pain medication. He believed that he could bear the pain. The nurse found him restless and uncomfortable. Again the nurse offered pain medication, again he refused, explaining that her responsibilities at the hospital were far more important than his comfort and he did not want to impose. Only after she firmly insisted that patient comfort was one of her most important responsibilities did the patient finally agree to take the medication.

Culture needs: Chinese are taught self-restraint. The needs of the group are more important than those of the individual. Another factor that may be involved in Asian’s refusal of pain medication is courtesy. They generally consider it impolite to accept something the first time it is offered. The safest approach for the nurse is to anticipate the needs of an Asian patient for pain medication without waiting for requests from the patient.

Impact: Lack of culture understanding make misunderstandings. In this case, it made the patient suffer from pain for a long time. Eventually the patient accepted the pain medication. That was not too bad. However, if the nurse knew the Chinese culture before, it could make it better.

Measure: Nurses should be aware of Asian rules of etiquette when offering pain medication, food or other services. Try to express more passion at the first time that offer your help to the patient. Try to make the patient feel that you really want to and could not say any “No”. But if patients continue to refuse medication, their wishes should be respected.


Case summery: A Vietnamese woman was rushed to the hospital by her adult children. The emergency room personnel discovered dark red welts running up her arms, shoulders and chest, yet the only presenting complaint was dizziness. When questioned, her son explained that he had rubbed her body with a quarter.

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A nurse became concerned when she found an elderly Chinese patient rubbing himself with a quarter( she thought he was trying to hurt himself). When she took the coin away from the patient, he became very upset, grabbed it back from her and continued to rub his arms and legs, leaving dark red scratches.

A Vietnamese girl in her first year at an American elementary school, was not feeling well one morning, so her mother rubbed the back of her neck with a coin. When the school staff discovered the welts on the girls neck, they immediately assumed they were seeing a case of child abuse and reported the family to the authorities.

Culture needs: In each case the patient was practicing a traditional form of healing known as coin rubbing. There are several variations, including heating the coin, but they all involve vigorously rubbing the body with a coin. This produces red welts, which can distract medical staff from the real problem or be mistaken for child abuse. Asians rubbing their children with coins is not any more abuse than Americans having thin pieces of metal wrapped around their children’s teeth and tightened until their teeth move out of place. Braces are usually applied for merely aesthetic reasons. Coin rubbing, at least, is an attempt to heal. Apparently, it often works, only the failures show up in the medical system.

Impact: Lack of culture understanding make misunderstandings. In this case, it was easy to mistakenly believe that the coin rubbing is a kind of abuse. But actually it just a traditional way to heal some diseases in Asian. This mistake can create sued case. That would be a trouble. But if we knew the Asian culture before, that problem would be avoided. It is important to recognize and become familiar with this practice, and not to be distracted from the real problem or mistakenly make accusations of child abuse.

To be culturally competent the nurse needs to understand his/her own world views and those of the patient, while avoiding stereotyping and misapplication of scientific knowledge. Cultural competence is obtaining cultural information and then applying that knowledge. This cultural awareness allows you to see the entire picture and improves the quality of care and health outcomes.

Adapting to different cultural beliefs and practices requires flexibility and a respect for others view points. Cultural competence means to really listen to the patient, to find out and learn about the patient’s beliefs of health and illness. To provide culturally appropriate care we need to know and to understand culturally influenced health behaviors.

In our society, nurses don’t have to travel to faraway places to encounter all sorts of cultural differences, such as ethnic customs, traditions and taboos. The United States provides plenty of opportunities for challenges stemming from cultural diversity. To be culturally competent the nurse needs to learn how to mix a little cultural understanding with the nursing care they offer. In some parts of the United States culturally varied patient populations have long been the norm . But now, even in the homogeneous state of Maine where we reside, we are seeing a dramatic increase in immigrants from all over the world. These cultural differences are affecting even the most remote settings.

Since the perception of illness and disease and their causes varies by culture, these individual preferences affect the approaches to health care. Culture also influences how people seek health care and how they behave toward health care providers. How we care for patients and how patients respond to this care is greatly influenced by culture. Health care providers must possess the ability and knowledge to communicate and to understand health behaviors influenced by culture. Having this ability and knowledge can eliminate barriers to the delivery of health care. These issues show the need for health care organizations to develop policies, practices and procedures to deliver culturally competent care.


Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers CHCCS405A


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