An Online Bookstore Website Information Technology Essay

Project aims to build an online bookstore website with effective cu

Al-Hawamdih,S. & Ahmad, M. (2018). Examining the Relationship Between Nursing Informatics Competency and the Quality of Information Processing. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 36(3), 154-159. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000379.

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

The purpose of this study is to look at nursing informatics and the quality of information processing for nurses in Jordan.  The study was conducted in a large hospital consisting of 400 beds and 1200 employees, with 380 registered nurses.  The convenience sample had a total of 99 nurses that used the electronic health record (EHR) for 3 months.  Inclusion criteria for the nurses included bedside nurses that were willing to participate and had used the EHR system for 3 months.  The study was conducted using a four-part questionnaire that assessed personal and job characteristics, Self-Efficacy, Self-Assessment Nursing Informatics Competency Scale, and a Health Information System Monitoring questionnaire.  The results of the study showed that there was a correlation between Nursing Informatics competency and the quality of information processing.  The results support the need for more training and education of nurses in the field of nursing informatics.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article

The strengths of this study are that it provides many implications for nurse leaders in practice.  The study focuses on advancing the nursing career and the importance of informatics in the restructuring of health care, which is also a strength of the study.  Another strength of this study is that they found a statistically significant correlation between quality of information processing and NI competency and clinical informatics attitude with r=0.34, P< .01, and r= 0.32, P< .01 respectively.  There were an equal number of males and females used in the study, which is also a strength. One weakness of this study is that a sample size of 99 people is small.  Another weakness of this study is that the nurses in the study had an average age of 28, meaning that the results only represented a specific age group. The majority of the nurses had a BSN, with only 9% having an MSN, this does not give an equal representation, which is also a weakness of the study.  Another weakness of this article is that it used self-report measure of competency that gives subjective data that will vary from person to person.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


Overall, the findings of this study have valuable implications for nursing practice.  The study is well organized and the purpose is clearly indicated to the reader.  Including charts within the study provides good visualization to the reader, and makes the information easier to comprehend. The study would have been more informative if it had provided the reader with the components of the four-part questionnaire.  Although the questionnaires were discussed, there were no details regarding the actual questions within the surveys.  Also, including information on past or current studies that are similar would allow for comparison and contrast and make the results more reliable. Also, including a more diverse and larger sample size would have been beneficial for the study.

Brazelton, N., Knuckles, M., & Lyons, A. (2017). Clinical Documentation Improvement and Nursing Informatics. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 35(6), 271-277 doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000367

Aim of the Article and Main Findings


The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits of clinical documentation improvement programs.  These programs are widely implemented and provide an opportunity for nurse informaticists to work together to optimize the patient’s health record, the electronic health record system (EHR), as well as make progress for standardizing language and vocabulary that is used to communicate with patients.  The article also discusses the importance of clinical documentation improvement (CDI) nurses and their role as educators and facilitators.  The article goes on to discuss the importance of CDI nurses and nurse informaticists communication with each other and bringing beneficial change to patients through collaborative efforts.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article

One strength of this article is that multiple examples of the queries used by CDI’s are detailed in a figure, allowing the reader to visualize and understand the components of the query and its applicability.  Another strength of the article is that it outlines the many potential benefits and excepted results from collaboration of coders and CDI nurses. One more strength of this article is that the overall focus is on improving patient care. The authors of this article are all advanced practice nurses with a background and understanding for the importance of nursing informatics, which is also a strength.  One weakness of this article is that the role and description of  “coders” is missing.  Providing a brief description of their role would help the reader understand the goals of the topic better.  Another weakness of this article is that although the importance of CDI nurses and nurse informaticists collaborating is discussed, providing an example of why this would be beneficial as well as how they can collaborate to implement change would have made the article stronger.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


The purpose of this article is clearly defined, and the article supports this purpose.  The article is well organized and provides examples throughout, making it easy to follow for the reader.  The article brings up a good point regarding clinic and hospital nurses lack of experience with provider billing.  From personal experience, transitioning from the role of a registered nurse to family nurse practitioner, there is a knowledge deficient and lack of experience with billing. The use of CDI nurses to educate nurses regarding billing and coding will help make the EHR more functional. Overall this article is interesting and informative and related to the field of nursing throughout, whether it is for RN’s or NP’s the results are applicable to a variety of settings.

Carrington, J., Dudding, K., Estrada, N., Finley, B., Nibbelink, C., Rasmussen, R.,…Tiase, V. (2016). Nursing Informatics Research and Emerging Trends in 2015. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 34 (1),284-286. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000278.

Aim of the Article and Main Findings


The purpose of this article is to give an overview of all of the advancements that have been made in the field of informatics in the year 2015.  It reports findings from a literature review of nursing informatics research and highlights recommended articles.  By doing so, the authors were able to identify common themes and topics, quantify the number of nursing informatics research papers, and solicit influential work from nursing informatics colleagues.  A total of 38 articles were used for the literature review, after a two search method was conducted.  The majority of the articles that were used were found from PubMed. The most common setting for nursing informatics was acute care, and the most common area of research was electronic health record systems.  Education, was the second most searched research topic.   Public health, community setting and mobile e-Health-focused research was also identified as being an emerging field of study.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


There are many strengths and weaknesses of this article.  One strength is that a diverse range of articles was used for the literature review.  Articles ranged from acute care, long-term care, home, operating room, healthcare organizations, literature and simulation laboratories.  Another strength is that the articles studied were within a one-year span, and therefore only the most current literature was reviewed.  One weakness of this article is that not all work in the field of nursing informatics was used for the review, and therefore there are major topics that may have been eliminated just based on the search criteria that was used. The search criteria also limited the articles to those with an RN being the first author. This is also a weakness because it eliminates other articles on which nurses may have collaborated on with out being the first author.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


This article was well thought out and organized.  The information is relevant to the current time and reflects recent research in the field of nursing informatics.  The research methods are clearly identified, giving the reader a clear understanding of the process taken for the literature review.  However, including more than 38 articles by broadening the search terms would have increased the range of articles used and given a better overview of the current topics in nursing informatics.  The article also provides a few examples of key studies that were used in the literature review allowing the reader to have a reference for what the articles discussed.  Overall this article was very informative and gave insight into the current trends and themes in nursing informatics.  Discussing topics that weren’t found to be major topics of interest, but that need to be addressed would have given insight into how future research can be improved in this field.

Collins, S., Kennedy, M., Phillips, A. & Yen, P. (2017). Nursing Informatics Competency

Assessment for the Nurse Leader, The Delphi Study. The Journal of Nursing Administration,47(4), 212-218. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000467

Aim of the Article and Main Findings


The primary goal of this study was to identify which nursing informatics competencies are relevant and necessary for nurse leaders to have.  The motivation for this study came from identifying significant nursing informatics deficits. Many times IT decisions are left to others because nursing leaders don’t have the needed knowledge and experience. This impedes the nurse leaders ability to continue to innovate, and advance new models of health care delivery.  This study was conducted with an environmental scan and 3-round survey using Delphi methods used with nurse leaders to identify competencies.  The environmental scan identified existing nurse leader informatics competencies.  The study revealed that most nurse leaders learned informatics competencies through on the job training, and a total of 74 competencies were identified.  The study can lead to a more competency-based model of nursing informatics.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


One strength of this study is that it addresses 108 competencies for nursing informatics and identifies them as being important and urgent needs within the field of nursing informatics.  Having such a broad variety of competencies that are addressed allows for the data to be applicable to variety of settings and nursing leaders, which is another strength of the article.  A weakness of this article is that the results are only limited to those that chose to take this survey, indicating that they already had an interest in nursing informatics.  The data is not representative of those nursing leaders that have no past interest or knowledge regarding nursing informatics.  Another weakness of this article is that due to the snowball sampling method that was used in this study, they were unable to report a response rate.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


This article is well written, organized and easy to comprehend for readers that have no previous knowledge regarding nursing informatics.  The study clearly states the purpose, which is to identify the competencies nurse leaders feel are relevant to their practice.  The study follows through with the over-all purpose of the article. The findings of the article are relevant to the field of nursing and informatics and the results are valuable to the field of nursing.  With the constantly evolving field of informatics, this article brings to attention that there is a knowledge gap regarding informatics within the nursing profession.  Nursing professionals are quick to rely on information technology professionals, which impedes the progress of the profession.  Implementation of more comprehensive informatics education can help nursing professionals feel more confident with using EHRs.  The article would have been stronger if it included specific information regarding methods to enforce comprehensive informatics education.

Cosansu, G., DeBlieck, C., Eardley, D., Garner, L., Krumwiede, K., Nahcivan, N. & Secginli, S. (2018).  The Omaha System as a Structured Instrument for Bridging Nursing Informatics With Public Health Nursing Education: A Feasibility Study. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 36(6), 275-283. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000425

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

The goal of this study is to address the need for adopting health information technology to maintain healthcare quality.  A case study that was developed by nursing professionals for use in undergraduate level public health nursing courses is used as an example for health information technology in this study. The research question asks if a public health nursing (PHN) case study mapped to the Omaha system is an effective tool for teaching students proper use of electronic health record (EHR) charting.  A descriptive case study with a convenience sample of 72 nursing students enrolled in PHN courses was used for this study.  The results of the study indicated that the case study mapped to the OMAHA system was an effective instrument for teaching EHR charting and the PHN process for population health.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


One strength of this study is that a large range of researchers from international and national borders collaborated with the use of virtual environments.  Another strength of this study is that the case study was similar to real life scenarios and is therefore applicable. The main strength of this article is that the results were statistically significant, indicating that the students met the learning objectives and skill development with EHR charting.   One weakness of this study is that there was no control group used. The use of a control group would help validate the results.  Another weakness is that a small purposive sample size was used.  Also, there was an online as well as classroom teaching system used and these differences should have been considered in the evaluation.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


This study addresses the need for nursing informatics for nursing students, which is relevant to healthcare today.  There are so many movements towards integrating informatics into the nursing education at all levels.  This article presents a structured study that effectively addresses the use of a case study to educate students on EHR management.  The use of a case study made the study easy to follow for the reader.  It also allowed the reader to see how similar studies can be replicated using these methods.  The students used for this study were from four different schools. Using a larger number of schools would have validated the results even more.  Also, providing a control group would help gauge the level of education improvement in comparison to an intervention group.  Overall the finds of this study can be used in different academic settings, and provide a framework for teaching nursing informatics in various school settings.


Kassam, I., Nagle, L., & Strudwik, G. (2017). Informatics competencies for nurse leaders: protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open7(12), e018855. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018855

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

This article aims to utilize a scoping review in order to identify informatics competencies that are applicable for nurse leaders.  This scoping review aimed to: identify informatics competencies of relevance to nurse leaders, identify frameworks or theories that have been used to develop informatics competencies for nurse leaders, identify instruments used to assess the informatics competencies of nurse leaders and examine the psychometric properties of identified instruments.  This study used the Arksey and O’Malley five-step framework and included two primary and five secondary databases.  A dissemination of the findings from this study will be done to target particular audiences.  The results will be used to informed future studies focused on the same topic.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


One strength of this article is that it is the first literature review that will consolidate nursing informatics competencies for nurse leaders.  Also, the search strategy for this review was developed in collaboration with a research librarian that was experienced with research databases.  Another strength, is that two primary databases: the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medline (OVID interface), and five secondary electronic databases were used.  The researchers will review the first 100 citations from each source, ensuring the quality and relevance of the citations.  One weakness of this study is that although the purpose also states that globally, health informatics is being used, only studies and documents published in English were used.  Using more diverse studies would allow the findings to be applicable to a more global population.  Another weakness of this study is that the studies used were only those that are directed to nursing leaders, defined as nurses that are not providing direct care to patients.  However, bedside nurses are still nurse leaders, and also greatly utilize nursing informatics, and would benefit from these studies as well.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


This article is well thought out and organized.  The methods clearly indicate a step-by-step analysis of how the scoping review will be conducted.  The article also clearly identifies the search strategy that will be used to search for studies that will be used for the review.  The article also discusses how the review will benefit health care institutions and nursing leadership organizations.  One criticism for this article is that providing an example of the chart that will be used for analysis of the data, and more information regarding how the analysis of the data will be calculated should be included.  Providing a case study would have allowed the reader to apply the information discussed in the article.

Kelly, J., Spurlock, A. & Vardaman, S. (2017). Patient Safety Addressed Through Reconciliations. Computers, Informatics, Nursing 35(7), 325-328. doi: 10.1097/CIN.000000000000037.1

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

The purpose of this article is to provide a solution for medication errors that arise with patients admitted to the hospital. This article addresses the issue of polypharmacy amongst the elderly population and how medication reconciliation can positively affect patient outcomes. The main finding of this article is that the use of clinical reminders (CRs) created with hospital information technology departments within the electronic health record can improve medication reconciliation by almost 30%.  Therefore, CRs are a cost-effective way to improve patient outcomes.  A CR was identified as a cue that an event that needed to occur had not happened.  The results of the study showed that there was an increase in medication reconciliation post CR use.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


One strength of this article is that it provides several examples of how CR programs in a variety of settings have yielded positive patient outcomes.  For example, the use of CRs in anesthesia led to more timely administration of antibiotics from 69% to 92%. A weakness of this study is that the number of charts used was small, and having a larger number would have resulted in more statistically significant data.  Another weakness is that the data was collected in the fall time when influenza was widespread. This seasonal variation could have impacted the results of the study.  Another weakness is that many nurses argued that computer issues associated with CR would negatively effect patient care time, and this issue was not addressed.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article

This study not only addresses the main purpose of the article, but also provides examples of similar studies that have also yielded similar results.  Medication errors are a huge cause of concern, and nurses are at the front line of preventing these errors from occurring. This is an issue that nurses at all levels face on a regular basis. This study provides a solution to reduce the number of medication errors, and improve patient outcomes for patients admitting the healthcare facilities.  Studies like this lay the foundation for continued development of information technology and its’ use in reducing errors and improving patient outcomes.  One criticism for this article is that it does not mention methods for training nurses to use the CRs in EHRs.  Having a training protocol could potentially reduce computer system issues that delay patient care.


Vottero, B. (2017), Teaching Informatics to Prelicensure, RN-BSN, and Graduate Level Students. Nurse Educator 42(55) S22-S26 doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000414.

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

The goal of this article is to discuss the importance of nursing informatics education for undergraduate and graduate nursing programs.  The purpose of this article is to also discuss how nursing informatics should be incorporated into these education programs.  Dedicating 1-3 weeks for foundational concepts in informatics courses during all nursing programs can help level students’ knowledge for the remaining course.  The article identifies the main aspects of informatics that should be taught, as: Basic Computer Competencies, Information Management, Patient Care Technologies, Clinical Information Systems, and Decision-Making Supports.  As nursing informatics continues to shape health care delivery, it is vital to deliberately incorporate nursing informatics into the nursing education curriculum.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


A strength of this article, is that all of the different educational needs are addressed in detail.  In addition to identifying all of the key components that must be addressed in these educational programs, the author further gives examples that are applicable at the prelicensure, RN, and graduate level.  One weakness of this article is that these educational guidelines may not be applicable in this format for all types of education systems.  It should take into consideration how the framework would work for online programs, accelerated BSN programs, or programs that are direct RN-BSN.  The guidelines and format would need to be adjusted to meet the needs of these programs that are not traditional RN, BSN, or graduate level programs. Another weakness is that past studies with statistical evidence are not provided.  Seeing the results of similar studies that have implemented such educational programs would provide a reference for ways to improve or maintain the current framework.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article

This article is well thought out and relevant to the field of nursing today.  The importance of incorporating informatics into nursing education is integral for the development of healthcare and for more efficient patient care. The field of nursing is constantly evolving and nurses must be properly educated in order to grow and keep up with the changing field.  On the job informatics training is no longer sufficient, and prior knowledge and skills will help nurses feel more confident and independent in the work place.  One criticism for this article however is that the incorporation of past studies in which such educational framework has yielded positive outcomes would have made the goal more convincing.

Watts, C.S. (2016). Preparing Nursing Graduates for the Future: Adding Informatics Education To Entry Level Programs. Nursing Informatics Today, 31(1), 10-16

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

The purpose of this study is to discuss a project that was developed to add informatics education at the bachelors and associates level of nursing education at a rural community college in southern Ohio. With the passing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), there is more emphasis placed on the use of technology to meet health care goals and ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills to handle these technological advances.  By developing a course for nursing’s graduates, the knowledge gap is addressed. The project was successful at incorporating and introducing a nursing informatics course into the curriculum.  The learning needs of the students were assessed by first conducting an initial assessment of the level of computer literacy.  Stake holders in the project included previous students that have already graduated.  The project was successful in adding informatics into the system.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article

The strength of this article is that it is well thought out and organized and includes a clear purpose.  Another strength of the article is that it includes a self-assessment tool used for the student in order to determine the individual learning needs. It also gives a clear picture of all of the various components that must be included in a course. There are also weaknesses to this article.  The article failed to discuss the specific components of the course or how long the duration of the course would be. Another limitation of the article is that it only discusses the steps for adding this course for a small community college. The methods and results obtained may not work for a larger school with a different budget and resources.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


The purpose and aim of the article was easy to follow. However, details regarding the length and time of the course are missing.  Also, the article does not address who would have the power and ability to allow for the course to be added to the curriculum. The individual scoring system allows for individualized feed back for the student, however the curriculum is the same for all students.  This does not seem fair, since students are at differing levels of competency, and therefore course requirements should also be individualized. Overall, this article provides detailed information that could be replicated at other schools in order to decrease the knowledge gap that many nurses have.

Wilburn, A. (2018). Nursing Informatics: Ethical Considerations for Adopting Electronic Records. NASN School Nurse, 33(3), 150-153. doi:10.1177/1942602X17712020

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

This article focuses on the ethical issues surrounding nursing informatics in a school setting. Many schools across the country are now adopting electronic health record systems, and it is the nurse’s responsibility to ensure that the privacy of the students remains protected. This article specifically discusses a case study at ABC school district and the ethical issues surrounding the implementation of a new cumulative records system.  The options for a new system are presented to a nurse leader. In addition to issues related to the financial burden of such a system, the nurse must also investigate ethical issues such as compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). A big issue that the nurse must address is how to ensure confidentiality and privacy with an electronic health system.  The findings of the study suggested that the nurse must take into account various factors such as speaking to the state school nurse consultant as well as the school district legal team.  According to the article, another recommendation for the nurse is to encourage the school district to be transparent with parents and stakeholders as to what information can and cannot be released.  School nurses must consider all of these ethical issues surrounding implementation of electronic health record systems in the school setting.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article


A strength of this article is that it not only discusses an issue that is very relevant to the field of nursing, but that it also provides a case study.  This allows the reader to follow a real example, and apply all of the issues to a real life setting.  Another strength of this article is that it is organized by the different ethical and legal issues presented.  This organization allows the reader to clearly understand the issues that are being discussed.  One weakness of this article, is that there is only one case study that is presented.  Therefore there is only one perspective that is presented, and the results and discussion are limited.  Having multiple nurses, school districts, and different types of school settings would have given a more broad understanding and discussion of the issue.  Another weakness of this article is that it presents a hypothetical case study, which discusses what the nurse can and should do.  It does not however discuss a situation that has already occurred.  Presenting information that has already happened would give the reader insight into future changes that can be made to correct the issues that are already occurring.

Evaluation/Opinion of the Article


Overall, this article discusses an issue that is very applicable to the changes that are occurring across the country with advancements in informatics in the health care setting.  Although the issues presented in this article focus on the school setting, the ethical dilemmas presented are applicable to other settings such as hospitals, clinics, etc. as well.  This article does a good job of explaining the issue at hand.  However, providing different examples of different types of school settings such as private vs. public schools could have made a difference with the results and discussion.  Also, although the various ethical issues are fully discussed in the article, there is not much discussion regarding the pros and cons of having an electronic health record system.  Providing concrete evidence of the benefits by providing past examples would have been beneficial.  Also, providing examples and statistical data regarding the number of identities that have been compromised in the past would also have made the points discussed in the article, stronger.


  •                                                     Al-Hawamdih,S. & Ahmad, M. (2018). Examining the Relationship Between Nursing Informatics Competency and the Quality of Information Processing. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 36(3), 154-159. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000379.
  •                                                     Brazelton, N., Knuckles, M., & Lyons, A. (2017). Clinical Documentation Improvement and Nursing Informatics. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 35(6), 271-277 doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000367
  •                                                     Carrington, J., Dudding, K., Estrada, N., Finley, B., Nibbelink, C., Rasmussen, R.,…Tiase, V. (2016). Nursing Informatics Research and Emerging Trends in 2015. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 34 (1),284-286. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000278.
  •                                                     Collins, S., Kennedy, M., Phillips, A. & Yen, P. (2017). Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment for the Nurse Leader, The Delphi Study. The Journal of Nursing Administration,47(4), 212-218. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000467
  •                                                     Cosansu, G., DeBlieck, C., Eardley, D., Garner, L., Krumwiede, K., Nahcivan, N. & Secginli, S. (2018).  The Omaha System as a Structured Instrument for Bridging Nursing Informatics With Public Health Nursing Education: A Feasibility Study. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 36(6), 275-283. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000425
  •                                                     Kassam, I., Nagle, L., & Strudwik, G. (2017). Informatics competencies for nurse leaders: protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open7(12), e018855. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018855
  •                                                     Kelly, J., Spurlock, A. & Vardaman, S. (2017). Patient Safety Addressed Through Reconciliations. Computers, Informatics, Nursing 35(7), 325-328. doi: 10.1097/CIN.000000000000037.1
  •                                                     Vottero, B. (2017). Teaching Informatics to Prelicensure, RN-BSN, and Graduate Level Students. Nurse Educator 42(55) S22-S26 doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000414
  •                                                     Watts, C.S. (2016). Preparing Nursing Graduates for the Future: Adding Informatics Education To Entry Level Programs. Nursing Informatics Today, 31(1), 10-16
  •      Wilburn, A. (2018). Nursing Informatics: Ethical Considerations for Adopting Electronic Records. NASN School Nurse, 33(3), 150-153. doi:10.1177/1942602X17712020


stomer profiling system. In this bookstore customer will be able to purchase books online that interested in customer profiling helps to understand and make suggestions to customer according to their mental and professional interests. Our project basically consists of two parts where the first part is creating online bookstore and the second part is implementing customer profiling system to online bookstore. Our purpose is develop a such system that will help customers in choosing a book and making payment. As all E-commerce websites this website need a cart system that will help to manage their purchase to satisfy all deliverables of customers. This website can be used for business purposes to sell a book via online. Customer profiling need to interact with customer to get information about his/her preferences, habits and interests. Database will contain all information about book: author name, title, year, publisher, ISBN number, brief description of book and other attributes. There also will be database where will be all taken information about customer.

Nowadays Business Intelligent become very important and quite famous in doing E-business. In this project we will take Business Intelligence as the most important factor in making online system. We are using data mining process for to develop our project. Association rule could bring one conclusion depending on variables from the relationship of book and customer data.

1.2 Overview

Online bookstore is a shopping process where consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet. If an intermediary service is present the process is called electronic commerce. An online shop, e-shop, e-store, internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping mall. The process is called Business-to-Consumer (B2C) online shopping. When a business buys from another business it is called Business-to-Business (B2B) online shopping. Both B2C and B2B online shopping are forms of e-commerce. Advantages of online bookstore is:

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Convenience includes the overall ease of finding a product, time spent on shopping, minimization of overall shoppoing effort (Schaupp & Belanger, 2005). Online shopping allows consumers to shop at the convenience of their own home, and to save traveling time to retail stores and spend their time on other important tasks and hobbies. Researchers idenfity convenience as a ‘fundamental objective’ related to online shopping (Schaupp & Belanger, 2005). This is relevant to 72% of online shoppers’ claim that they would rather surf online than go to retail store to attain information about a product (Lokken et al., 2003). According to a study, 72% of online shoppers chose convenience over privacy (Bhatnagar, Misra, & Rao, 2000). In addition to ease of finding products online and shopping time reduction, consumers can shop without time limitation with 24-hr access at their convenience because the World Wide Web never closees. Lokken mentions 24-hr access as a beneficial characteristic of online shopping (Lokken et al., 2003). Also, consumers can exchange information online through chatting and discussion forums to help them make wise consumer decisions.

No need for vendors and no pressure to buy

Online shopping benefits both the society as a whole and individuals. The society can save human resources when consumers help themselves by browsing freely online instead of asking for assistance from vendors. In addition, consumers are freed from the pressure to buy from the vendors and can spend more time to make wise purchase decisions. But it is imorpant that Web sites have good product descriptions because it is one of the significant condition that satisfy consumers (Limayem, M., Khalifa, M., & Frini, A., 2000).

“Infinite shelfspace” available

Consumers desire a variety of products because they look for the right product that will fully satisfy them. There is infinite variety of products available online because online shopping allows consumers to browse through products that are made all around the world without geographical boundaries.

Able to compare product price and features

With the online tools that enable product comparison, consumers can compare product prices and features to make a better decision with less effort. More details are included in solutions section.

1.3 Project Objectives:

– Develop a user friendly online bookstore

– Build an effective customer profiling system that could be able to analyze and give suggestion to customer in book preference.

– Reduce a customer time in searching for book based on their interests.

1.4 Project Scope:

This website specialized on E-commerce area. There are scope on this project. The website is based on online shopping where customer can order and make a payment of book via internet. Moreover it will able to save customer data and use it to determine what kind of books are in zone of interest of specified customer and display a books according to customer interest. The limit of customer profiling system that it analyzes only registered users and those who filled the survey in the process of registration. In technical side to develop a website and system that will oriented for web design and database system will be done by PHP6 and Microsoft SQL server. This two different languages will connected by WampServer and will be developed in Adobe Dreamviewer program.

1.5 Problem statement:

Regarding to Online bookstore website there problem in detection of consumer behavior, making website convenient, practicable, and useful to customer.

In the market:

There are o lot online bookstore websites, but there are only a few online bookstores where could be a customer profiling, based on behavior of consumer.

Using a friendly appearance:

The website must come with a friendly appearance that could be understandable for all users.

Save a time of customer:

Customer could see all interested books related to his behavior without using search opportunities, because profiling system must show books according to received information form customer.

Analyzing system must basically understand customer in terms of their profile, buying behavior, expectation and satisfaction.

Literature Review:

Physical Bookstore:

Bookstores are a common sight in our contemporary society–mostly large chains like Barnes & Noble, but also smaller independent booksellers tucked away in local neighborhoods. They belong to a lengthy history which has encouraged the spread of human knowledge throughout history.

Early Days

Before the invention of the printing press, books had to be transcribed by hand. Scribes and similar experts sold their services to whoever would pay; their places of business could be considered the earliest bookstores.

Crusades and Universities

The rise of universities in Italy in the 13th century, coupled with books brought back from the Crusades, created a new interest in secular writing throughout Europe. Bookstores began to spring up as a matter of course.

Printing Press

The invention of the printing press in the 15th century caused book production to explode; most printers also served as booksellers, with representatives in universities to help sell their wares.

Sellers vs. Publishers

In the 19th century, bookstores began to separate from book manufacturers. Those who owned bookshops would serve as middlemen, purchasing from publishers before passing them on to readers.


The first large organization of booksellers–the Booksellers Association of Great Britain and Ireland–first appeared in 1890. They worked to protect members from harmful practices and help them promote their wares.

Is The Physical Bookstore A Thing Of The Past?

from the may-finally-be-getting-there dept

It’s been talked about for over a decade now, but are we finally reaching the tipping point for physical bookstores? Some are pointing out that Amazon’s continued success in online sales represents an element of “creative destruction” for physical retailers, and a NY Times piece notes that plenty of bookstores are shutting down — including some of the big name brands, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble.

What may be most interesting in the NY Times article, though, is that the blame isn’t necessarily placed at online retailers directly — but on the fact that online sites have made it much easier to resell used books. Thus, the argument goes, the market is now flooded with used books that individuals are selling out of their bedrooms, meaning that it rarely makes sense for anyone to pay full price for a new book anymore. It’s an interesting argument — and it’s the type of argument we’ve seen made against used book sales in the past, and more recently that video game makers have been making concerning used video game sales.

However, it’s not clear if this is really true. Past studies have shown that an active second hand market helps to boost the sales of new goods, because it makes those goods more valuable to folks who recognize they’ll be able to resell them on the second hand market later. That may not be helpful to physical bookstore retailers, but those retailers have to learn to adjust with the times as well. Obviously, just selling books is going to make less and less sense, but we’ve seen retailers that have worked hard to turn their stores into destinations, where there were good reasons to go and buy stuff, rather than just being a physical version of what you could get online. If bookstores are unwilling to make those changes then is it really a huge loss

Online Bookstore Review:

Review and comparison method:

Why Shop at Online Bookstores?

Shopping for books online helps you find the best possible price for just about any book you want. If you’re in the market for rare, collectible or autographed books, it’s much cheaper and faster to search online than it would be to call up local used and independent bookstores that carry these types of items.

The features available on many online bookstores also allow you to compare similar titles with the click of a mouse and read reviews from professionals and customers. You can also resell your used books to get more cash in your pocket and to clear out your cluttered bookshelf. It’s never been easier to ensure you never get stuck with a crummy title again.

What to Look For in an Online Bookstore

If you’ve decided to start buying books online, it’s important to recognize what features make one store better than another. Even if you find a book you want for a great price on one site, it may still be better to pay a little extra to purchase it from a more reputable source. A quality online bookstore will have a good product selection, an easy-to-use -yet comprehensive- website, a variety of shipping options, a number of payment options, excellent customer support and a strong return policy.

Product Selection

A good product selection is critical to any online bookstore. Every store reviewed has an array of new book titles from all genres, but the thing that makes one store stand out above another is their willingness to sell other items like used books, collectible books and other merchandise like CDs and DVDs. Additionally, some of the best sites allow customers to sell their own books on the site.


An easy-to-use website is important for customers who want to get their shopping done quickly and efficiently. On the other hand, providing guests with a plethora of options and features can only be a good thing -as long as the site remains easy to navigate. Some of the most important things reviewed were the site’s search features, browsing capabilities, store locator, sales, wishlist functionalities and the ability of customers to read reviews on the books they are looking for.


When you order a book, you may want it to arrive as soon as possible or you may want to pay the least possible for shipping. Sometimes, you may want to balance these two needs against each other and end up somewhere in the middle. That’s why the online bookstores were judged on the number of shipping options offered. Some sites offer free shipping when you order enough merchandise, which is always a nice touch. On the other hand, it is also important they offer fast shipping, international shipping and ground shipping. If the store has physical locations, they may also offer local pick up. Some places will even wrap your gift books and send them with a gift receipt and note for a marginal fee. Just as important as a variety of shipping options is how the shipping is calculated and the ability for shoppers to research the cost of shipping before they place an order.

Payment Options

Because online bookstores cannot accept cash like physical bookstores, it is important that they offer a variety of payment options to suit all potential customers. Most stores took Visa, MasterCard, Discover and American Express, but when it comes to other payment options, your choices can vary greatly based on where you are shopping. Some stores will let you do bank account transfers, or use PayPal or Google Checkout, while others let you pay in store. Additionally, some places allow customers to purchase gift certificates and use promotional discounts, while others are not so generous.

Customer Support

As with any store, customer support can make or break a business. In the case of online bookstores, it is most important for them to offer an array of contact methods since you often cannot visit the company in person. Additionally, most sites offer a helpful FAQ section to let users find the answers to their most common questions without having to call or email a support representative.

Return Policy

When it comes to returning a book through the mail, the longer you have to return the item, the better. Also, it is nice when the company is willing to pay for the item’s return shipping or at least let you return the item in a physical store. Some stores choose to take full advantage of those who return their items by charging customers a small restocking fee.

When you’re considering which online bookstores to visit, it is very important to keep these factors in mind. Just because a company offers a great price on an item doesn’t mean it’s a steal once you learn about their expensive shipping rates or terrible customer service. That’s why it’s always so important to do your research before you buy. Start with our review of is probably the best-known name in the online bookstore industry -and with good reason, it is the largest online retailer in the world. The company is not only one of the oldest in the market, but it has consistently worked to stay one step ahead of the game. At the same time, there is still a good amount of humanity to the site that allows shoppers to buy with comfort, understanding that their customer service and return issues will be handled with exemplary care.

Product Selection:

Because is the biggest competitor in the online bookstore world, it is only logical that they have one of the most extensive product selections around. While Barnes and Noble and Borders offer a few non-book items like games, movies, music, calendars and journals, offers clothing, exercise equipment, toys, garden supplies and anything else you can imagine.

When it comes to books though, they still have one of the most impressive collections around. One of the biggest advantages they have is their massive seller marketplace that allows users to create listings for rare and collectable books that may have never sold in the first place. Autographed books, out of print books, and textbooks are all available. Practically any book that has been published in the last century is available for purchase in some form within the site’s listings.

Ebooks are also available, which can be used on the online bookstore’s Kindle reading device.

Website:’s website is easy to navigate and simple in design. A simple search can bring you dozens of results for different versions of the same products and a few related items. Using the advanced search feature, you can go as specific as the publisher, subject, binding type or ISBN number. Browsing the site is just as easy. Simply choose the department you want to shop in and then slim down options until the items you want to purchase come up.

Search and browsing results can be organized by price, best selling, customer reviews and more. You can also filter out all results that are eligible for Free Super Saver Shipping. These features make it easy to navigate through the millions of product listings on the site without getting lost on the way.

Once on the product pages, you can read reviews, product specs, a book summary, professional reviews, any sales related to the product, and see similar books. On many items, additional pictures and pages from inside the book are available for your review. You can then choose to add the item to your wish list (the most commonly used wish list on the net), buy the book with one click, choose between booksellers, or sell your own book.

When it comes to purchasing, makes it easy to evaluate a third-party seller’s reputation and shipping costs along with the condition of the item they are selling. Once items are in the cart, they are easy to delete or save for a latter purchase.

After using the site for a while, you will soon start to see personalized recommendations and product suggestions based on items you previously bought and browsed.

Shipping:’s Free Super Saver Shipping allows you to ship anything you purchase through the company (but not through a third-party seller) free as long as you purchase over $25 of qualifying goods during your transaction.

As a member of their Amazon Prime customer loyalty program, you can even receive free two day shipping on all goods that qualify for Super Saver Shipping, regardless of how much your total purchase is. With this program, one day shipping on these items is only $3.99. While many of the other online bookstores offer free shipping on purchases over a certain price, these Prime discounts are a specialty only found on

Regardless of what you order, there are plenty of shipping options available. Standard shipping usually takes around a week to two weeks. Third-party expedited shipments usually arrive within 3 days and one or two day items sold directly from almost always arrive within the timeframe seen on the shipping page during checkout.

International shipping is available on most items for an additional fee. Tracking is available on all items not purchased through third-party sellers.

If you are purchasing the item as a gift, items purchased through can be wrapped for an additional fee. You can also choose to send the gift with a special note and be comfortable knowing that the item will not arrive with a receipt with monetary values. Items purchased as gifts through the wishlist feature cannot be tracked for security reasons.

Payment Options:

No single online bookstore offers all possible payment options available. However, and Barnes & Noble offer the most options of all online book retailers. The company will accept any credit card, including JCB and Diner’s club cards. You can also pay via a direct bank transfer or an e-check. Google Checkout is also available, though PayPal, noticeably, is not.

The secure checkout process makes it easy to pay with a gift card or using a promo code as well.

Because is exclusively an online store, payments by phone or via money order are not accepted.

Customer Support: offers excellent customer support, however their position as an exclusively online entity does limit them from being able to offer in-store support, which is one other area that Barnes & Noble has them beat.

The retailer not only offers phone, and email support, but also has two separate mobile phone apps (one for the iPhone and one for the Blackberry) that provide service as well.

Anyone with questions can also scour through their helpful FAQ sections on the site, which cover almost every common question about buying, selling, wishlists or any other services available on the site.

Return Policy:

The site’s return policy varies depending on whether you are purchasing through Amazon or through a third-party seller. In all cases, any defective, undelivered or improperly described products fall under’s A-to-Z Guarantee and can be returned within 30 days. If the item was not purchased through a third-party seller, will cover the return shipping in these cases. If directly sold the item and you choose to return the item for a reason of your own, you will cover the cost of shipping.

Items that were purchased through a third-party shipper and returned for a reason that is not the fault of the seller may be subject to a restocking fee and may have shipping costs deducted from the return.

If the seller refuses to cooperate with a return, will take action and return the full cost of the item to you, in many cases allowing you to keep the item and receive a refund. Buyers are only permitted to take advantage of this process a set number of times though, in order to help limit abuses.


Whether you’re looking to buy a textbook, sell your autographed copy of Harry Potter or simply create a wish list to help your friends or family shop better this Christmas, has a bevy of features to make it the leader in online bookstores and e-tailers in general.

They have a massive inventory, an easy-to-use site, wonderfully useful features, excellent shipping options, a number of payment options, superior customer support and a return policy that lets you buy without doubt or regret. Best of all, their prices are often unbeatable.

If you’re looking for an online bookstore that is backed up by brick and mortar locations though, keep reading these reviews of other online bookstores, or, if you are in the market specifically for text books, see the textbooks online review.

Barnes & Nobble:

While is the largest retailer on the internet, Barnes & Noble is the overall largest book retailer in the U.S. As such, it is not surprising that the company offers one of the best online bookstores around. Though they do not offer a few functions that does, they remain a strong competitor and are able to pair online services with those in their brick and mortar stores, which many online retailers cannot do.

Product Selection:

Barnes & Noble may not sell clothing and furniture like, but when it comes to books, their selection is equally impressive. New and used books of all types, including textbooks, are available for sale, as are collectable, out-of-print and autographed titles. Their third-party marketplace is not as full as’s, but there is still a wide array of books available.

If you are looking for a non-book product, they still have a number of great options, although the selection is largely built around items that would make good gift ideas. Toys, games, DVDs, CDs, reading lights, select electronics, paper products and more are available.

The store also features a number of eBooks that can be used on its Nook reading device.


Barnes & Noble has one of the easiest online bookstore websites to use, as the attractive site makes browsing and searching a breeze. Advanced search options are available, allowing you to search by the book’s condition, subject, price, publisher, ISBN and a number of other factors.

The top navigation bars make casually browsing the site a breeze and the home page is both attractive and useful at suggesting the items and features that users want most. Once you have selected the category you are interested in though, Barnes & Noble fails to offer the same level of browsing options as

The product pages are useful, offering photos of the book and sample pages, customer reviews, a brief synopsis, editor reviews, and similar titles. From here, you can choose to buy the book new through Barnes & Noble, see your options for purchasing the item used, add the item to your wish list or order it to be reserved for you at a local store near you using the “Pick Me Up” feature.

The used section of the online bookstore is similar to, offering seller reviews, product condition descriptions, the item’s location, shipping items and the price of the item. One thing it is lacking is the price of shipping to help customers evaluate the total price of the item.


Like and Borders, Barnes & Noble offers free expedited shipping on items over $25 but, items purchased through authorized sellers on the site, and not directly through the retailer itself, are not eligible for Fast & Free Shipping.

Items purchased directly though Barnes and Noble can be shipped a variety of different ways, including overnight, expedited, and international. These items can also be tracked on the site. When it comes to authorized sellers, these options may vary and are offered at the discretion of the seller. It should also be noted that these purchases cannot be tracked.

One of the nicest features available on the website is the previously mentioned “Pick Me Up” option, which allows buyers to find their books at a local Barnes & Noble brick and mortar store within 60 minutes, and allowing them to bypass shipping costs. The books will remain on hold for you for up to three days, after which time, they will be returned to the shelf.

Gift wrapping services, gift receipts and personal messages for gift recipients are all available on items purchased through the retailer. Wrapping does cost an additional $3.99, but the other two options are free.

Payment Options:

Of all the online bookstores reviewed, Barnes & Noble and Amazon offer the best selection of payment options. In fact, the only two payment choices that seem lacking are bank account transfers and Google Checkout. They do accept all credit cards, including Diner’s Club and JCB, PayPal, and phone payments. You may also pay in person using check or cash.

When using the site’s secure checkout process, it is easy to apply a promotional code or gift card to your purchase.

Customer Support:

Barnes & Noble offers the widest array of customer service options available. The online bookstore even has four different mobile applications for customer support on your cell phone. Their extensive FAQ section is easy to navigate and if the answers there do not solve your problems, you can call, email or speak to someone in person at a physical store near you.

B&N Members receive special discounts via email and always get discounts on the website and in the physical stores. This membership does cost extra though.

Return Policy:

The most disappointing aspect of shopping with Barnes & Noble is their relatively short returns window and lack of free return shipping. While it is nice to be able to return to a physical store if you need to, the 14 day returns policy and mandatory receipt rule make it difficult to ensure you can return defective, broken or unwanted items when you need to. To make matters worse, items purchased using PayPal require a phone call in order to get a return authorization before you can receive a credit back on your account.

If you purchased the item through an authorized seller, the return window is extended to an acceptable 30 days, but the return will take additional time to process.


Barnes & Noble’s blending of virtual bookstores and physical shops makes the retailer a great option for those who need their items in a hurry, don’t want to pay shipping or just aren’t one-hundred percent comfortable with online shopping yet. Their online store offers a great selection of new and used books, and other items. The website is clean, attractive and easy-to-use.

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Their shipping options are plenty and the availability of Fast & Free Shipping is always a welcome feature. The wide array of payment options makes it easy to complete your transaction and if you have any questions, customer service is always easily accessible. The only downside of shopping with the site is their short return window. If you intend to only buy books for yourself that you already know you like, then even this problem isn’t a major concern.

If you want to compare more options, feel free to see the reviews of other online bookstores. Or, if you’re just looking for school books, you may consider the textbooks online review.

Powell’s Books is not as well known as the top-rated online bookstores we reviewed, but they still offer a lot of options and have a great website. If you live in Portland, Oregon, the store offers even more flexibility to you, as it has locations throughout the area. If Powell’s continues to improve its services, it is likely to become a household name like

Product Selection:

Powell’s Books offers an extensive selection of titles and a limited selection of non-book goods like calendars and gifts. You can purchase new or used books, including textbooks, through the site and special autographed copies are also available. Selling your books to the company is easy and can even be done in the physical store.


The website looks great and is easy to use. It is well organized with handy drop-down menus that allow users to narrow down what they are looking for, without looking cluttered and jumbled. When you browse by subject, you can also select sub-categories to really slim down your results. The basic search permits queries for title, author, ISBN number and keywords, while the advanced search includes binding types, condition, date released and more. You can also search for titles in your local store.

The individual book pages offer Google previews of the titles to allow you to see more and many title pages feature interviews with the authors. These pages also offer a publisher’s synopsis, customer reviews and expert reviews on the title to help you make an informed decision. You can also see similar titles and specific product information about the book, such as the edition number and copyright date. From this page you can choose to add the item to your


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