Since 1989 Jammu and Kashmir has been the most important issue in the India’s internal security scenario. Jammu and Kashmir was a major site o
In ancient time, women didn’t have much influence in the social or political. However, in Egypt women was honor and given much more freedom than women in other civilizations. In kingship, their role was responsible for passing throne to the next king, the co-regent for their too young king. Moreover, there were few queen had authority as a pharaoh and the most successful and famous female pharaoh was Hatshepsut.
Hatshepsut (1508-1458 BC), the 5th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt, she was the eldest daughter of king Thutmose I. Hatshepsut was the only queen enthroned as a king, and took all the king’s divine names, except “The Strong Bull”. During her reign Egyptian enjoyed a peaceful life, prosperity and stability economy.
Why do we study about Hatshepsut?
Hatshepsut was the most successful female pharaoh, who ruled the Egypt about two decades and provided the Egyptian a peaceful life and economic prosperity. However, today, there was very little information about her. So how did she become a successful king? And why today there is very little information about her? To answer these questions, we need to learn more deeply about her life.
In the following part of this document will talk about the Biographical sketch of Queen Hatshepsut.
Hatshepsut’s life and kingship
Why did Hatshepsut become king?
Hatshepsut was married to Tuthmosis II, her half-brother, who was physically and mentally disabled. So that Hatshepsut had full control on state affair and gain much influence among the priests. Thotmose II ‘s reign was only 4 years. Thotmose III, his illegitimate son was declared to be his heir. But, Thotmose III was too young for kingship and his mother Isis, a minor wife of Thotmose II, so Hatshepsut became his co-regent. In early inscriptions and images, Hatshepsut and Thutmose III are shown as co-rulers, with Hatshepsut had a higherposition. And in year 7th of their joint reign (about 1473 BCE), she took on the full powers and identity of a king. She dressed and wore a false beard as a male king.
How did she rule the country?
Around 1473 BC, Hatshepsut crowned herself as a pharaoh, and had the throne name Maatkare, mean “Truth in the soul of the sun.” It was chosen to clarify that it was right and orderly for her to be a king as it important to the rightness and order of the universe.
After became king, she changed her feminine name Hatshepsut to Hatshepsu, a male name. She employed many strong and loyal advisors, such as Hapuseneb, the High Priest of Amun, and the royal steward Senemut, her closest advisor. At that time, Egyptians was an advanced civilization and the most powerful in the world. The trade networks that had been destroyed by the Hyksos was rebuilt, and brought back wealth for Egyptian. Hatshepsut’s carried a peaceful foreign policy and much activities was for trading facilitation and the building projects. However, she also led some successful military campaigns in her early year such as war in Nubia, Levant and Syria.
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Hatshepsut was very good at propagandizing to legitimatize her rule. One of her most famous propagandas was a myth about her birth. In the myth, Amun went to Ahmose and awakens her in the form of Thutmose I. Then Amun placed a symbol of life, the ankh, to Ahmose’s nose, and she pregnant. Then Khnum, the god who forms the bodies of human children, instructed to create Hatshepsut’s body and ka. Khnum and Heket, goddess of life and fertility, leads Ahmose along to a lion bed where she gives birth to Hatshepsut. Furthermore, in order to strengthen her position; the Oracle of Amun proclaimed that Hatshepsut be Pharaoh was the will of Amun. In addition, She carved on her monuments and publicized the Amun’s endorsements: “Welcome my sweet daughter, my favorite, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare, Hatshepsut. Thou art the Pharaoh, taking possession of the Two Lands.”
Comparison with other queens
Hatshepsut was not the first ancient Egypt queen who rules as a pharaoh. There were few queens who had authority as a pharaoh such as queen Merneith of the first dynasty, queen Nimaethap of the third dynasty and queen Sobekneferu of Middle Kingdom. These queens were a co-regent to their son and took a pharaoh role while the country in the chaos or fading situation. In contrast, under Hatshesut rule, Egyptian had enjoyed a long peaceful and prosperous life due to her good governance. The wealth of Egypt paved the way for Hatshesut’s building projects and raised the architecture of ancient Egypt to a position which was considered that no any other culture could challenge it for a thousand years.
The trouble with her titles
Why did Hatshepsut not rule as a co-regent? Why did she take the title and images as a king?
There were some reasons for this problem. First, at that time in Egyptian there was no word “Queen”, which a female rule as a king, there were only the tittles such as king’s great wife, king’s mother, king’s sister and king’s daughter.
Hatshepsut took all these tittles except the title king’s mother because Isis, the mother of Thutmose III, had already taken it. However, Isis was a minor wife of Thutmose II, so even she had the title as king’s mother, she could not a co-regent for her son. This would be the reasonable and necessary for Hatshepsut took the title “King.”
III. Major achievement of Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut restored the trade networks that had been paused during the country invaded by Hyksos. She supervised a mission to the Land of Punt, a region of East Africa that was rich in natural resource such as gold, blackwood, and wild animals, ivory and slaves. Her peaceful foreign policy gave the Egypt an opportunity to boost their economic growth and brought wealth for her country.
Hatshepsut was one of the most project builders in ancient Egypt, she built hundreds of construction projects throughout Egypt, that were greater than those of any of her Middle Kingdom predecessors; however some of her projects were claimed by later pharaohs.
Hatshepsut built many monuments, as well as also restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt at Karnak, that had been damaged during the Hyksos occupation. Moreover, she constructed the tallest twice obelisks, at the Deir el-Bahary temple entrance. Today, one of them is the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth. Between the twice obelisk, the Chapelle Rouge or Karnak’s Red Chapel was built and was consider as a barque shrine.
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Hatshepsut’s masterpiece project was her mortuary temple which designed and implemented by Senemut, the first biggest project at the Deir el-Bahri, a site on the Nile River’s West Bank near the King Valley’s entrance. The central of this project was the Djeser-Djeseru or “the Sublime of Sublimes”, a perfect colonnaded structure which very famous in nearly one thousand years before the Parthenon. Djeser-Djeseru and the other Hatshepsut’s projects at the Deir el-Bahri have been considered a significant architecture achievement.
Hatshepsut’s large scale building projects during her reign, not only reflected the wealth of Egypt but also gave her an opportunity to promote herself to the public. In official representations she took on all the pharaonic symbols: the Khat head cloth, the traditional false beard, and the shendyt kilt.
IV. Death, burial and mummy of Hatshepsut.
Hatshepsut died when she was about 50 years old, in her 22nd regal year. There were no any evident for the cause of her death; however, the scientists found that, if mummy which is considered to be hers is correct, she was suffered from diabetes and died from bone cancer.
When she was the Great Royal Wife of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut constructed of a tomb, but the scale was not suitable for a pharaoh, so after became king, she ordered her engineers to build another one, the first royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings, which is bigger and prettier. This new tomb was prepared for father, Thumose I, and herself. It was likely that she wanted to be burried along with her father in this tomb. However, Thutmose III’s reign, Thutmose I mummy was moved to a new tomb, while Hatshepsut’s mummy was moved into the tomb of her wet nurse, Sitre-Re.
Nearly at the end of Thutmose III’s and the ealry of his son, Amenhotep II’s reign there was an attempt to eliminate Hatshepsut’s name from historical and pharaonic records. At the Deir el-Bahri temple, Hatshepsut’s statues were destroyed by smashing or defacing. What they could not destroy, they shaped it again and made it relate to themselves. For example, at Karnak after destroyed statue of Hatshepsut sitting beside Amon, they designed a god’s figure which did not make any sense.
However, there was no any evidences show that Thutmose III hated his step-mother. Because during Hatshepsut reign, Thutmose III was a head of military, a position which could easily led a successful coup. Furthermore, Hatshepsut’s images and her other accomplishment remain featured in 20 years after her death.
There are many difference ideas among the scholars about the elimination of her statuses. Some of them argued that, because of the self-promotion of the later pharaohs or their officials. Another idea is that may be the pharaoh didn’t want to pay money for the new tomb of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II used the Hatshepsut’s constructions instead.
Joyce Tyldeley, a writer, believed that by eliminate Hatshepsut’s monument and reduce her status to his co-regent, Thutmose III could claim that he was the direct succeed of his father, Thutmose II, without any interupted. In addition, it would be thought that the image of a successful female king would be a bad example and dangerous for the male pharaoh because it would encourage to have a new potential female king in the future. The last argument is that, the elimination could done by the new officials that appointed by the Thutmose III because they want to promote him in order to get benefit and assured their position.
In all, Hatshepsut accomplished what no woman had before her. She was the most successful female king. She brought to Egyptian a peaceful and prosperous life for twenty years. Even if there were some who resented her success, her success last forever.
On 30th January 1933, President Hindenburg invited Adolf Hitler in public and appointed him as the chancellor of Germany. Whilst some believed that Hitler’s rise to power was inevitable, to others it came as astonishment. Many assumed that Hitler’s rise to power was only due to his political brilliance and his witty Nazi tactics. Yet, there are many that believe that it had everything to do with the weakness of Weimar Republic and after the rising level of unemployment the German people were ready to accept a dictator.
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There are many reasons behind the rise of Adolf Hitler. The Munich Putsch was a major event in the rise of Adolf Hitler. Although the Nazis had progressed well from the end of World War One in 1919 to 1923 they did not have much support in Germany. There main support was in Bavaria and was no use to Hitler in Germany. So Hitler, along with the Nazis attempted to seize power 1923. Hitler believed that even though he only had three thousand members in the Nazi Party, he had a chance to win over Weimar Republic Government. However on 9th November 1923 Hitler and the Nazis were defeated. Although many say that this was a big defeat for the Nazi Party, others stated that even though the Putsch itself might have failed, it had launched the Nazi’s and Hitler into a national frame along with making Hitler famous. It was the main building block of Nazis success. Two days after the Munich Putsch, Adolf Hitler was captured and put to trial. Hitler was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment, but served less than nine months before he was released. Although the years after the Munich Putsch there were many difficult times for the Nazis, Hitler said, ‘it was the greatest good fortune for us Nazi that the putsch collapsed because the Nazis were not yet prepared to face the great difficulties at the time.’ He also thought that the putsch ‘had proven the most effective propaganda for National Socialism.’ Hitler also had an opportunity to write his thought and vision in a book called, ‘Mein Kampf’.
The collapse of the Munich Putsch persuaded Hitler that the only way of seizing power was ‘legal means’. He introduced his own tactics into the Nazi Party system. He decided to reorganise the party and make it more effective for elections. Throughout the late 1920s the Nazis ran public meeting and worked on winning over the working classes. They had soon discovered that the anti-Semitism propaganda worked best amongst the working class. Propaganda worked best with them because it is ‘brainwashing’ of public and altering their viewpoint. There were many different Nazi Propagandas including posters, radios, films and newspapers. Though the Nazis had many different methods of propaganda, Hitler believed that posters were the best means of propaganda for various reasons. Posters were cheap and easy to distribute and was used for constant reminder of ideology. Hitler was finding it difficult to win over the middle classes. He finally realised that he had to focus more on his message because the anti-Jewish message did not work well with the middle classes. He decided to criticise the government. There were many posters published criticising Gustav Stresemann and the Dawes Plan suggesting that there were holding Germany on ransom along with the Jewish bankers. The Nazis also held public meetings in various different parts of Germany in order to evoke the same feelings in the German citizens as the Nazi Members. Using this method, the Nazis developed a very accurate and sensitive system of propaganda.
The Wall Street Clash in October 1929 was the beginning of a great depression but for the Nazis it was the biggest gift they could have ever received. Germany had been hit badly by this because they had to pay back the entire loan they had acquired from the USA as part of the Dawes Plan. In Germany, the depression affected different people in different ways. It was as if Germany had lost another World War. Unemployment had risen massively in Germany and even the businessmen, who always kept themselves well-protected, felt the impacts of the Great Depression. Everyone in Germany was suffering apart from the Nazis. Everyone, from Businessmen to factory workers and farmers were hoping that the government, Weimar Republic would help them. Six million German people were unemployed and others were hanging on to their hinges. But the Weimar Republic had no idea what to do about the problem of rising unemployment and poverty. It was the second major economic devastation for the Weimar Constitution. They had resisted themselves from printing more money and increasing government expenditure due to the impact it had on Hyper-inflation in1923. Instead they increased taxes, cut benefits and reduced unemployment benefits. They were not winning the support of German people. Weimar Republic seemed to have made a hopeless mess of handling the situation. They were already struggling due to the consequences Germany had to face after the end of World War One in 1919. Germany had lost land and their army had to be cut down to 100,000 men only which meant that many ex-soldiers who had fought in World War One were unemployed. They were angry with Weimar Constitution for accepting defeat and were eager to get back their revenge. And now Weimar Republic’s policies had given too much power to the President, the States and the army which weakened the Reichstag as well as dividing them into different groups. Many more inhabitants of Germany, who didn’t vote before became more interested in politics because they needed someone who can better the situation. Extremists parties like the Communists part and the Nazi Party became better known among those who were desperately in need of help. The Nazi said that the Weimar Republic is to be blamed, the treaty of Versailles and the Jews. They assured the angry Germans that Hitler was their man. The Nazis promised to reduce unemployment by putting them back to work on road building and public works. Hitler had his plans on how to attract many sections of society. Some of his ideas that attracted the Germans included ‘Rip up the Treaty of Versailles, Work Freedom and Bread and Germany as a national and prideful state.’ Hitler clearly knew the desires of the Germans and was quick to promise anything that would help the Nazis gain vote in the Reichstag. Whilst, on the other hand the Communists Party said that the Depression showed the capitalist system has doomed and that the only answer was communism. Hitler became aware of the strong oppositions and thus along with Ernst Rohm and Hermann Goring he introduced his own set of men to destroy the opposition, the SA. They wore brown uniform and knew how to deal with the Communists. They were not only used to intimidate opponents but also to gain support for the Nazi Party.
During this time Hitler mostly used his leadership skills and tactics to gain as much supporter and power as possible. He was an excellent public speaker and was easily able to put his points across with his powerful and moving speeches. Along with getting his views to his crowd he also demonstrated to them his excellent and strong leadership in the ‘Great German’ tradition dating back to Kaiser and beyond. His strong personality and powerful ideas seemed to outwit the Weimar Republic. This had a great impact on the elections in 1930. The Nazis made their first great breakthrough when they gained a total of 107 seats in the Reichstag. They were suddenly the second biggest party and at the time, they seemed likely to take over. They were seen as a major force in German history and politics. But what got them these seats? The Nazis were ex-soldiers who felt as if the Treaty of Versailles was a ‘stab on the back’ and what they brought with them was decisive. There excellent teamwork and obedience enabled Hitler to work through the whole of Germany. Another of Hitler’s main tools was his henchmen; Joseph Goebbels was an effective piece of propaganda. He was well trained and used every means to pass his message across. Though he wasn’t as good as Hitler, he was intelligent and new how to bring up hatred for the Communists and Jews. He created excellent poster that created fear and disgust not only for the Jews but also the Communists. Hitler was then able to point out that the Nazis knew how to deal with the Communists and their records showed this.
The Nazi Party also had support from rich industrialists. Usually rich industrialists voted for the Conservatives Party but after the elections in 1930, they started supporting the Nationalists. Hitler agreed to make a deal with the right wing nationalists and the two parties agreed to co-operate. Hitler used this deal as a financial backup. This showed the Nazi Party was quite flexible. If they realised that if a proposal was not working for them they would change it. Not only did Hitler use tactics but weakness of opposition parties supported them along with the elections and uprising of the Nazi Party. Other opposition like the Social Democrats underestimated the Nazis. They saw that there support was constant and so they were not willing to change their policies.
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In 1932, the weakness of Weimar Constitution was clear to all Germans. The Weimar Republic was already unpopular amongst the Germans because they had agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles and this had left many Germans and ex-soldiers bitter. The Germans were also largely affected by the Depression because they were already damaged by having to pay large sums as part of the reparation. They were then attracted to extremists groups like the Nazis and the Nationalists. Germany was run by an 84 years old man, President Hindenburg. No political leader was strong enough to rule Germany. At the time, the Nazi Party was the largest party and normally the leader of such party was likely to become leader. In this case it was Adolf Hitler. But the only thing that stood in between Hitler and him becoming the chancellor was President Hindenburg. He disliked Hitler along with other Reichstag members who would not work with Hitler. In July 1932 elections, the Nazis won 37.3% of the votes (230 seats) and had once again proved to be the largest party. Hitler demanded to be appointed as the Chancellor but Hindenburg refused and he said, ‘I cannot give all the power to an unorganised and intolerant and violent party’. Though after this event, many industrialists and politics wrote to Hindenburg and persuaded his to give Hitler dictatorship. After high pressure, Hindenburg appointed his favourite man, Franz con Papen to be the chancellor of Germany. Von Papen had no support but had hoped to create a right wing coalition government with the support of the Nazis. Hitler was furious that Hindenburg had selected Franz von Papen to be the dictator and thus refused to co-operate with von Papen. Hindenburg decided to call another election. However, this time it was a bad time for the Nazis. They were facing the financial crisis. Though surprisingly help came from two men, General von Schleicher and Franz von Papen. Von Schleicher had stopped supporting Von Papen and decided he himself should become Chancellor. So in December 1932 von Schleicher was appointed the chancellor of Prussia. Unfortunately, this triggered off a power struggle between these two men. Schleicher admitted defeat and Hindenburg wanted to re-appoint von Papen but he refused. Instead he suggested that Hindenburg should appoint Hitler instead because as long as the numbers of Nazis in the cabinet are limited the most extreme of Nazi policies could easily be resisted. Following this, President Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as the Chancellor of Germany and von Papen as the vice-chancellor of Germany. They (Hindenburg and von Papen) believed that Hitler would be tamed.
In conclusion, I believe that the main reason behind Hitler becoming the Chancellor of Germany is the political manoeuvring between Franz von Papen and General von Schleicher. After von Schleicher had failed, von Papen persuaded Hindenburg that another option now existed. The Nazi’s together Nationalists would have a realistic chance of gaining the majority number of seats in the Reichstag. However Hindenburg was still a little bit cautious, he wasn’t very enthusiastic on appointing Hitler as chancellor due to his extreme ideas. He had on a previous occasion refused to appoint Hitler. The Nazis were also suffering from a big problem. They were running toward bankruptcy and were gradually losing seats in the Reichstag. Many of their supporters have left and this could be due to Hitler failing to become the chancellor on various occasions. The Communists votes were increasing and the Nazis were going towards the biggest landslide they would have to face. I believe that if the political power struggle wouldn’t have occurred then Hitler would not have come to power. I believe that economical power was Hitler’s and the Nazis backbone and in 1932 their backbone was due to break. This is basically what helped in revealing the great frame in Hitler’s rise to power in Germany in January 1933 as he was appointed as Chancellor and the rise of ‘Great Evil’ began.
f the extremely bloody 1947 war. The first few years saw a relative domination by terrorist group when the casualties were mainly civilians. Jammu and Kashmir which lies in the northwest of the subcontinent bordering china. At the time of partition -the British provinces divide two countries India and Pakistan the Hindu majority on the side of India and the Muslim majority on the side of Pakistan and j s k one such a rich pricey and nature rich state had a vesicular problem. Because it’s the state is in India at the time of partition means under Hindu majority but having Muslim population. In 1947 the population of Kashmir is 77% of Muslims and 20 % of Hindu. After the partition both the country claims that J and k is theirs country state but the result they had wars with each other’s many times over this region. In 1987 the alliance won and Farooq Abdullah was the chief minister of the Kashmir. The relation between India and Pakistan is soured. They fought three times in 1947 to 1948, in 1965 and in 1971.so in this quarrel then United Nations invited. From the Indian side it instead that the no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars. The Jammu and Kashmir are has been administrated by both India and Pakistan .The insurgency was first predominant in Srinagar when militants were largely Kashmir’s youth. Muslim’s are majority in poonch, rajouri, kisth, and doda. And the Shia Muslims make for majority in kargil region. The definition of insurgency means is an armed rebellion against a authority (for ex- which recognised by the United Nations) those who taking part in this rebellion are not recognised by any nation. Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir existed in various forms. It includes, civilians, Kashmir are, Indian armed forced and foreign militants etc. Kashmir has been the target by all the sides in the conflict. After the elections of 1987 some of the state legislative assembly formed groups or militant wings and further more that has started a catalyst for the insurgency. And it was the starting point of the insurgency in j and k .According the press release there were 3,400 cases of disappearances. U.S intelligences also believes that the al-Qaeda and Taliban are helping to organizing terror camps in Kashmir to foment conflicts it has left more than 4.7000 people dead till 2009.and in the year of 2000 because of insurgencies 31,000 Indian civilians lost their lives .terror camps play a central role in this Insurgencies. The Pakistan’s inter – services intelligence has been accused by India many times to supporting and training terrorists. Like between India and Pakistan. The government believes that the terrorists groups from Afghanistan entered in to this region with the help of isi (Pakistan’s intelligence).since then the violence has increased significantly in strength. Some parties which are present in the j and k are demanding for an independent Kashmir these parties names are hurriyat conference and Jammu and Kashmir liberation front. Other militant groups favour as a Pakistani Kashmir. It is hard to determine the total numbers of casualties. Because in Jammu and Kashmir it is very common after the partition. Kashmir continuous to remain at the highest volatile region in the world with a highest average of 2,500 every year. Every individual has his or her own ideology so some fight in the name of the religion and some are for independent Kashmir. Several new groups and organisation have also emerged. India claims that the there are also other afghan, Egyptian and Bangladeshi terror active in Jammu and Kashmir. And Is I is the main suppliers of funds and support these groups. But the Pakistani government always denied these type of statements to India. Richer Bennett, a British intelligence analyst that the isi helped these militant groups and has many of their attacks both within the Kashmir and the other major big cities of India. There are between 2,600 to 3,600 militant camps across Pakistan and Pakistan administrated Kashmir. The FBI has also produced images of camps which are located in pok. India claims that the every year thousand of armed and terrorists cross the loc and enter into the India’s administrated Kashmir and spread the terror. During a piece summit between Pakistan’s former president pervej Mushrraf and India’s former president Atal Bihari Vajpayee in Jan 2004.pakistan assured that they would do everything possible to curb the activities any training camps on its territory. But the violence has continued despite three year long peace process between India and Pakistan. In 2005 there were 166 incidents in the result 201 people are died. So all the problem faced by both the country people. Islamabad has done little to stop the training camps on its soil it was the statement by p. mussaraf the former prime minister of Pakistan the statement was a truly fake or false statement. Covered by the media. However India claims that the Islamabad supports these terror groups. Thousand of pandits move from Kashmir because of terror. Not much about these groups some says that they collaborate and they are the members of an alliance known as united jihad council. the two groups which India says they were behind the attack in parliament in New Delhi .they are known as jaish -e-Mohammed and lashkar -e- toiba. They are in the favour of Pakistan’s Kashmir. They are believed to be the members of u g c. In a letter to American people written by Osama bin laden he stated the reasons that why he was fighting against America is because of her support to India on the Kashmir issue. The u .s secretary of defence on a trip to New Delhi in 2002 suggested that al-Qaeda was active in Kashmir. India say’s that the it was jaish e Mohammed who hijacked the Indian airline flight I c 814 to Kandahar and to force the Indian government to release the commander of Jaish e Mohammed named Maulana Masood azhar and also attacked the assembly of Kashmir in 2001. All the support or you can say the arms given to them by Pakistan military or i s i. Between august 1988 and at the end of 1989 JKLF was the only terrorist group present in insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. Later the I s I promot them. The main work of I s I is to give arms to the militants and help them to shifted them to Indian’s administrated Kashmir. Because of terrorism the state, tourism has been badly affected. Insurgency is the most threatening attempt by Pakistan. It has used to seize the state. Pakistan knows that it this phase of insurgency does not flair up into an open war. The situation came closer in june1999 in the Kargil region when Pakistan’s army regulars were detected holding positions in peaks of loc. India frequently warned many a times to Pakistan that finish that terrorist’s camps but Pakistan government always indulged the statements that their country is peaceful and no terror activities involved by their country. Some of Pakistan’s Organistaions report that Indian armed forces have been responsible for the death of 4,500 Kashmiri. So Pakistan have also point out India many time In the year of 1990 to 1999 there are 4,242 cases of rape of womens in Kashmir. Another reason of dispute over Kashmir is water. Jehlum and Chenab which flows in Pakistan and the three river ravi , Sutlej and beas irrigate in northern India. In 1960 the Indus water treaty signed to resolved the most of dispute over the sharing of water. But the Pakistan raised the issue when India constructed the dams on its side and which limit water to Pakistan’s side.
How to control the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir?
There is a possibility of changing everything for the good. Religious terrorism is a major part of today. Both the countries should take steps for remove the terrorists parties from their country specially for Pakistan. Pakistan needs to destroys all the camps of terrorists. Because it is the time to finish the issue not to make the issue. So, it is our responsibility to stop the terrorist attacks and to fight with terrorists. .We had already soft on the terror. There are only four or five countries which fight like a child war for states. We have done nothing except kill our men and people of the other countries. Both the countries India and Pakistan have same religions , currency and etc so we are the two faces of one coin. Respect the other religions. I DREAM THAT THE INDIA WE LEAVE BEHIND WILL BE MUCH MORE WONDERFUL THAN THE INDIA WE INHERITED. I SINCERELY HOPE YOU SHARE MY DREAM.THANK YOU