Physical abuse: This is any form of harm caused to the body, which may include one
In a recent study, Rafferty and Wiggan 2011 state, in the past, lone parents with children below 16 years of age had the right to seek paid work or not, without risk of sanction. The recommendations of the Freud Review (2007) of Welfare-to-Work provision and the 2007 Green Paper on Welfare Reform, In Work Better Off, marked a critical phase in policy, proposing a new social agreement that reinforced lone parents’ obligation to seek paid work (Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), 2007). Since October 2008, lone parents whose youngest dependent child is above twelve years of age are no longer eligible for Income Support (IS) on the grounds of being a lone parent. From 2010, this was extended to lone parents whose youngest dependent child was above seven years old and this was further extended in the Budget 2010 to those whose who’s youngest dependent child being ¬ve or over (Great Britain, Parliament, Her Majesty’s Treasury, 2010).
This paper will analyse the implications of the Government’s policy objectives and their vision that it is right to expect people to make every effort to get themselves ready for work, as well as raising expectations. The government intention is that those who find work benefit from higher income and improved wellbeing. There are also fiscal benefits, with a lower benefit burden the government estimates that this policy change will affect approximately 100,000 single parents in 2011and make savings of £380m between 2011 and 2015 (Tickle, 2010) there is also wider social gains with reduced adult and child poverty through increased employment (DWP, 2008). Lone parents feel that their concerns have been disregarded; that being a parent is a full time job and there are insufficient flexible, ‘family friendly’ jobs available (Woods, 2010). Gordon (2002) stated that uncertainty about how to get benefits reinstated quickly if the job did not work out has placed another barrier in the way of seeking employment as well as the loss of Housing Benefit and changes in their Working Tax Credit. This is reinforced by the Policy Studies Institute (1996) which found that many out of work lone parents say they are unable to take paid jobs, even if they could find affordable childcare and the biggest reason given was that their children were too young and needed their mother at home. Channel 4 News (2011) broadcast that as the new welfare reforms for single parents come into force, lone parents are being set up to fail (Gingerbread, 2011).
Gordon, (2002) also stated that policies pursued by successive Conservative governments throughout the 1980s and 1990s led to a massive increase in the number of low-income households and families. New Labour changed direction and had policies on making work pay by creating a liveable minimum wage and a welfare ideology, which emphasised the importance of maternal care. One of the keystones of New Labour’s strategy to reduce welfare dependency was ‘making work pay’, a strategy that was especially directed at lone parents through increased financially supported childcare and a specific ‘New Deal’ which started after the 1997 election. This targeted lone parents amongst other vulnerable groups. The programme was voluntary and offered a mixture of job search support, training and practical support for the transition to work. There were only limited opportunities for training, with the main focus being on getting lone parents back into work. Gregg, Harkness and Smith (2007) state that Government policies to help lone parents back into work and reduce levels of poverty, could had a profound difference and change the quality of life for lone parent families. The UKs commitment to a personalised, bespoke, support is limited because of the lack of resources and training.
Cunningham & Cunningham (2008) stated that Social Workers (SW) should be aware of lone parents and their struggle with poverty and employability because poverty is a key and defining feature in the lives of many Service Users (SUs). They go on to state that sociology in Social Work is an important skill for Social Workers to bring into practice to help underpin the General Social Care Council (GSCC) Codes of Practice (COP). The GSCC COP state SW’s must have appropriate knowledge and skills to provide social care and keep those skills and knowledge up to date. According to Knijn, Martin and Millar, (2007) reducing welfare dependency for lone parents could result in reduced welfare expenditure and maximised employment rates along with improved socio-political impact for women. The financial incentives for work had to be substantive and sustainable to reduce the risk of in-work poverty.
Gregg, Harkness and Smith, (2007) stated that as part of its welfare reform and child poverty strategy, the incoming New Labour government initiated a series of policies aimed at reducing child poverty in 1997 and a key element of this was to increase employment rates amongst families with children, especially lone parents. Finch et al (2004) suggested that a lack of good childcare is one of the significant barriers to the governments target to increase the lone parent employment rate to 70 % by 2010. The Welfare Reform Green Paper (2007) states ‘work is at the heart of our Welfare Reform Programme’. Allan (1997) stated that benefit regulations were changed in an effort to encourage lone mothers into work and greater pressure was put on non-resident fathers to make sufficient financial contributions to their children’s needs. In its Green Paper (1998) Supporting Families, New Labour’s stance on lone parents was clear about the benefits of marriage (Cunningham and Cunningham, 2010) and also stated ‘paid work is the best route out of poverty’ (Department of Social Security (DSS) (1998). Lone parents were one of their key target groups. At this stage parents could still choose between staying at home and being a parent or going out to work.
In the Budget 2010 address, Mr Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, stated that the government expects lone parents to look for work when their youngest child goes to school. The changes were implemented on 25 October 2010 and affected lone parents’ claiming IS. Job Seekers Allowance (JSA) Regulations (2010) changed the policy too, once children are of full time school age, parents who are able to work and are claiming benefits should be expected to look for paid work to support themselves and their family. Ahrends, J (2010) stated that Gingerbread, a charity for single parents, is still calling on the Coalition Government to implement plans to enable all employees to apply for flexible working, to ensure all jobs in the public sector are offered on a part- time or flexible basis and introduce a right to paid parental leave to help parents deal with time off when children are ill.
David Cameron, Gordon Brown and Nick Clegg all pledged to challenge prejudice against single parents in 2010 (Ahrends, 2010) and the newly elected Coalition Government (2010) further stated that it was committed to introducing flexible working for all and launched a taskforce on children and families, unfortunately 9 months later this same government has scraped regulations which came into force April 2011 as part of a package of measures to reduce bureaucracy for businesses. Stratton and Wintour (2011) wrote in The Guardian, Vince Cable, the Business Secretary, will exempt firms with fewer than 10 employees from all new “red tape” for three years as it subjects 21,000 pieces of regulation to an audit by the public. This will see a shelving of the right to request flexible working for parents with children under 17 which will apply to all firms, not just small ones. It will also scrap the right to request time for training and education toward Continuous Professional Development (CPD). Freegard, (2010) co-founder of NetMums, commented on the benefit changes and suggested many lone parents would be feeling very anxious. She also noted single parents often want to work, but finding jobs to fit around the school day is very difficult; as is finding and paying for suitable good quality childcare before and after the school day. Woods D (2010) stated that ‘family-friendly’ jobs are still far too rare despite the Government requiring 100,000 single parents to seek work in 2011. According to Gingerbread the vast lack of jobs with flexibility could jeopardise plans to have more single parents in work.
A national survey of single parent members and users of NetMums website found that members had seen few jobs advertised that they could apply few for with part time hours, within school hours or as a job share or flexible in some other way. Launching a Gingerbread Briefing on flexible working, chief executive of the charity Weir (2011) called on the Government to move faster on plans for flexible working: She stated that the business case for flexible working has been proven with most employers agreeing that people work best when they have a work/life balance. Giullari, (2009) states in terms of poverty eradication there has been an improvement. Single parents’ employment rate has certainly risen, from 40% in the early 1980s to 56.6% in 2009.
The Freud Report, (2007) states it is an increasingly common expectation that once children reach school age then receipt of benefits should be conditional on looking for a job. JSA is the main benefit for people who are out of work, to receive it you must be available for and actively looking for work. JSA is only given to ‘bona fide’ jobseekers, anyone who refuses an interview, restart interview or fails to keep the job search diary faces instant cessation of their sensation benefits; this is not suitable for all. Lone parents still have the right to limit their hours and not be expected to work outside normal school hours. For the governments policy to work, there has to be sustainable, flexible work for lone parents to be employed in. Under this welfare ideology one of the key assumptions is that all adults should be in work even if it means precarious employment (Lewis and Giullari 2005). This welfare ideology emphasises and promotes ‘active’ social policies and needs full employment to achieve this (Knijn et al, 2007). The Coalition Work and Pensions (DWP) Minister, Maria Miller stated, “We know that work is the best route out of poverty”. Now with personalised interventions the most successful are when the intervention meets the SU needs, wishes and capacities (Van Berkel and Valkenburg 2006). Ahrends, (2011) debates although successive governments have promoted work as the route out of poverty and that many single parents are better off in paid work this is not always the case: 21% of children whose single parent is in full time work still fall below the poverty line, as do 29 % of children whose single parent is working part time. Ahrends (2010) further states 4 out of 10 children living in poverty are in a single parent household, and 9 out of 10 of them are mothers. More than 20% of women have persistently low incomes, helping, rather than forcing, these women is the answer.
Finch et al (2004) discusses that numerous studies have suggested that Britain’s parents are failing, children are miserable and have poor moral, social and intellectual upbringing. Paton, (2011) writes children from single parent families are ‘worse behaved’, children raised by single mothers are twice as likely to misbehave as those born into traditional two-parent families, according to the Daily Telegraph. Headlines like this increase lone parents thinking that the government believes parenting can be done alongside of part time work are counterproductive. When a lone parent starts work, there are many changes to daily life. and the lives of their families and other family members may have to be more involved in child care. All of this including the social, work, carer and school settings are key elements to work sustainability; this has not yet been systematically explored in research (Millar and Ridge, 2009). The Freud Review (2007) fails to answer difficult questions of how putting pressure on the most vulnerable will help the government to meet their child poverty targets and enable the best start for all children.
Single parents want to work, for various reasons; increased income and financial independence are key motivators along with personal independence, the opportunity for social interaction with other adults, and to set a good example to their children. According to Ahrends, (2010) 42% of single parents say that having almost any job is better than being unemployed on benefits. Throughout Britain, a high proportion of single parent families are already in situations of severe financial vulnerability. The cost of living in Britain is £13,400 (Bradshaw et al. 2008,p. 32). Figures produced for the DWP (See annex A) reveal that over 50% of people living in single parent families fall into the low-income bracket, which is defined as below 60% of the national median income after deducting housing costs (approximately £195 per week for a single parent with children). In contrast, less than 5% of two parent families fall into this category (DWP, 2010). Finch et al (2010) state single parent families will suffer disproportionately, not only under cuts to public services but also under tax increases and benefit changes. It is clear that single parent families, especially those headed by women, are at risk of becoming even more vulnerable to poverty.
Jenkins, (2011) states that as most children living in severe poverty are in workless households, priority should be given to removing barriers to employment for parents living in poverty. Key measures to combat child poverty include help with childcare costs for low income households and more support for parents who work in part-time jobs; this could be done by raising the earned income level at which lone parents can claim full benefits, providing more training opportunities for parents who need and want to boost their skills and an increases in the minimum wage.
The London School of Economics and Political Science state the “Misery Index” is a simple economic concept, which puts together the ills of inflation and unemployment together into a single amount of our financial despondency (Rainford, 2011). February 2011 saw it hit the highest level since October 1992. The Fawcett Society, a charity that campaigns for equality between women and men, points out, unemployment among women is already at its highest for the last twenty years. Women are the biggest losers under the public sector cuts. Women are also most likely to be affected by the government’s plans to review regulations that “burden” business. The Fawcett Society (2011) state that the budget was a good opportunity missed, to present a credible growth plan and had some consideration of how to enable women to take up new jobs in the private sector. These measures were put in place to tackle the private sector pay gap and promote family-friendly jobs, which reflect the needs of a modern workforce.
Lone parents are facing a changing environment of social protection because of reduction in services and monies available because of the central government cuts. With the Coalition Government there has been a shift away from supporting lone parents being full time carers at home to an employment-based maternal model. There is a rhetoric focus and direction towards supporting employment and now the move to compulsory work-related requirements. Lone parents with children five years or over are treated the same as any other unemployed claimant (Woods, 2011). Lone parents are not now seen as having caring obligations but as a wider part of a ‘hidden’ unemployed. DWP (2008) state the government’s strategy is to increase employment and decrease poverty among lone parents but there are many obstacles still to be overcome. Gloster, et al. (2010) state that some of this is the incompatibility between low paid, part-time atypical jobs and the primary caring responsibilities of lone parents there is also no systematic provision for special paid or unpaid leave, good quality affordable childcare is difficult to find and there are few training programmes that fit into the lives of lone parents. Without the security of a second wage, child tax credits are paid regardless of the work status and the working tax credit is specifically intended as a supplement for low wages all contribute to this incompatibility. Family-friendly employment with a work/life balance are not now part of the government’s policies and without action from both the Government and employers, many single parents will remain in the poverty trap. (Woods, 2011)
or more episodes of aggressive behavior, usually resulting in physical injury with possible damage to internal organs, sense organs, the central nervous system etc.
Sexual abuse: This is when a sexual act is carried out without the consent or understanding of the service user involved. This can include sexual penetration of any part of the body, touching inappropriate parts of the body without informed agreement, sexual exploitation and/or threats regarding sexual activity.
Emotional / psychological abuse: service users being bullied, controlled, intimidated or taken advantage of . Service users needs being ignored, reports of shouting, screaming, swearing, scared of raised voices, distressed, being teased, being humiliated, un respected, not being given choice, opinion, dignity, privacy, being undermined.
Financial abuse: This can be the case when a third party is controlling or spending a service users money. Not being made aware of their own finances, family controlling service users money and not making it available for the service user to use, control of their finances being taken away even if able to deal with them, sudden changes in the service users will, personal belongs going missing, unusual spending patterns, others moving into the service users property. |
Institutional abuse: This can occur in a care home, nursing home, acute hospital or in-patient setting and can be any of the following – For example, being made to do things not of the service user’s own free will, i.e. under duress, being forced into acts they are not compliant with (or being forced into behaviour they are not happy with) such as set meal times, set bedtimes, freedom restricted.
Self neglect: This is when a service user neglects their own basic needs, such as personal care – not eating/drinking, not taking medication, neglecting personal hygiene, neglecting appearance.
Neglect by others: This can occur when a third party neglects a service user, whether intentionally or via oversight. Neglect can involve not catering for the service user’s basic needs such as nutritional needs, healthcare/hygiene needs, leaving a service user without adequate finances, neglecting medication needs.
Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse
The indicators or warning signs of abuse can be clues that something is happening in the life of the service user that should be looked into. Some indicators are obvious signs of abuse. Other indicators are subtle, requiring careful observation.
Physical abuse – Bruises, Burns, Cuts or scars, marks left by a restraint, imprint injuries (eg., marks shaped like fingers, thumbs, hands, belts or sticks), missing teeth, bald spot in hair (from pulled hair) , eye injuries, broken bones ,sprains, abrasions or scrapes, sudden onset of psychosomatic complaints, sudden difficulty walking or sitting.
Sexual abuse – unusual sexual behaviour, blood or marks on underclothes, recurrent genital/urinary infections, loss of confidence, lack of interest in appearance, sleeping problems, feeling depressed, frequent complaints of abdominal pain.
Emotional/Psychological abuse – changes in the way affection is shown, sudden onset of nightmares, changes in sleep patterns, difficulty sleeping, sudden regression to childlike behaviors (i.e., bed-wetting, thumb-sucking), cruelty to animals, sudden fear of a person or place, depression, withdrawal, or mood swings – any unexplained change in behaviour.
Financial abuse – unpaid bills, no money for food, clothing, or medication, unexplained withdrawal of money from someone’s bank account, family member or representative refuses to spend money on the adult’s behalf, possessions disappear, family member or another person forces an adult to sign over Power of Attorney against their own will.
Institutional abuse – Inability to make choices or decisions, not being offered an advocate when needed, no awareness of own rights, agitation if routine broken, not person centred, care plans not available to service user, strict times for routines which MUST be adhered to, carer/company using policy and procedure as a reason for not doing something for the service user without making an effort to find another way to do it, lack of personal clothing or possessions, denial of visitors or phone calls, lack of privacy, lack of adequate procedures (e.g. for medication, financial management, controlling relationships between staff and service users, poor professional practice, high number of complaints, accidents or incidents. These are all signs that may be shown when institutional abuse is occurring.
Self neglect – Signs shown when self-neglect is happening to a service user are poor personal hygiene, no food in the cupboards or fridge, rapid weight loss
Neglect by others – When services users are being neglected by others signs that this is happening may be, they become ill, hungry, cold, dirty, injured, deprived of their rights and rapid weight loss may become evident.
Describe the factors that may contribute to a service user being more vulnerable to abuse
Vulnerable people may be more susceptible to abuse when carers have made changes to their lives that they are not comfortable with, when there is no family to support them, when they have more than one carer supporting them, when they do not know how/where to make a complaint, when they need more care than they are currently receiving, when their carers become dependent on alcohol or drugs, when living in housing which has no adaptations, are socially isolated or are not aware of their rights.
2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse
Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an service user is being abused
I would firstly observe the service user and if I became suspicious that he/she was being abused I would ask if they are okay. I would next inform my line manager of my concerns and discreetly document my concerns, but I would not ask the service user leading questions.
Explain the actions to take if an service user alleges that they are being abused
If a service user alleges that they are being abused I would need to stay calm, Listen very carefully, ensure that he/she is not in any immediate danger, call for emergency services if urgent medical / police help is required and be aware that medical and forensic evidence might be needed, encourage the person not to wash or bathe in a major incident of abuse as this could disturb medical/forensic evidence. I would next tell the person that they did the right thing in telling me, express concern and sympathy about what has happened, reassure that the information will be taken seriously and give information about what will happen next, let the service user know that they will be kept involved at every stage; that they will be told the outcome and who will do this. Give the service user contact details of somebody that is in a position to help further so that they can report any further issues or ask any questions that may arise. Next I would explain that I must tell my Line Manager, then inform my Line Manager of the situation immediately and explain what I have been told along with my concerns.
Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved
I would begin by making a written record of messages (e.g. answer-phone) to ensure they are not lost (including the date and time and sign them), ensure written records (notes, letters, bank statements, medication records etc.) are kept in a safe place. If this involves physical abuse I would not tidy up, wash clothes, bedding, other items, or try to clear/tidy anything up. I would try not to touch anything unless I have to for the immediate wellbeing of the service user – if I have to I would then make a record of what I have done. If any sexual abuse has been committed I would discourage the service user from washing, drinking, cleaning their teeth or going to the toilet until the police are present. I would then try to ensure that no one else enters the premises (apart from medical staff or necessary people in positions of authority until the police arrive. I would contact my Line Manager to try to ensure that the alleged perpetrator does not have any contact with the service user, record any physical signs or injuries using a body map or hand drawing and write a description of any physical signs or injuries including size, shape, colour etc. I would lastly sign and date my notes and any other records I have made.
3. Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse
Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse
No secrets (Department of Health2000)
Safeguarding of Vulnerable Adults policy, (SOVA)
Care Quality commission (CQC)
Mental Capacity Act
Independent safeguarding authority (ISA)
National occupational standards
General social care commission
In safe hands
Local safeguarding children board
Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse
Provides guidance to local agencies that have a responsibility to investigate and take action when a vulnerable adult is believed to be suffering from abuse. It offers a structure and content for the development of local inter-agency policies, procedures and joint protocols which will draw on good practice nationally and locally; and encourages partnership working between all statutory, voluntary and private agencies that work with vulnerable adults.
The Care Standards Act 2000 introduced a list for the protection of vulnerable adults known as ‘the POVA list’ which listed care workers who were considered unsuitable to work with vulnerable adults. Section 82(1) of the Act provides that a person who provided care for vulnerable adults must refer a care worker to the Secretary of State if the provider had dismissed a care worker on the grounds of misconduct which harmed or placed at risk of harm a vulnerable adult.
Every child matter
Every Child Matters, the government’s vision for children’s services was published in September 2003 as part of the response to the death of Victoria Climbie. It proposed reshaping children’s services to help achieve the following five key outcomes for children and young people: Be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution, achieve economic well-being. It focuses on supporting families and carers and prevent them reaching crisis point and prevent child abuse.
Care standards act 2000
The Care Standards Act 2000 came into effect in April 2002, replacing the Residential Homes Act 1984 and the Residential Homes Amendment Act 1991. The Act set up a new system of national minimum standards for services It established a major regulatory framework for social care to ensure high standards of care and will improve protection of vulnerable people. Implementation led to the establishment of the independent National Care Standards Commission (NCSC).
Quality Care Commission
Established through the Care standards Act, the care quality commission aim is to promote improvements in care via its triple functions of inspection, regulation and review of all social care services. It provides a comprehensive overview of social care in England and works at a local level, at a national level, and across all sectors. Regular reviews of social care provision are published.
General Social Care Council (GSCC)
The Care standards Act also established the GSCC, the first ever UK-wide codes of practice for social workers and employers were launched in September 2002. It is the regulatory body for the social care workforce in England. Their codes of practice provide a clear guide for all those who work in social work, setting out the standards of practice and conduct workers and their employers should meet. They are a critical part of regulating the workforce and helping to improve levels of professionalism and public protection.
Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) barring scheme
The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) introduced a new vetting and barring scheme for those who work with children and vulnerable adults. The scheme was launched in autumn 2008 and replaced the Protection of Vulnerable Adults (POVA) arrangements. The scheme covers health and social care services. All new job applicants who will be working with children or vulnerable adults must have a Criminal Records Bureau (CRB disclosure) which gives prospective employers information about any criminal records history guiding their decision on the applicants suitability to work with children or vulnerable adults.
The Independent Safeguarding Authority’s (ISA)
role is to help prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults. We assess those individuals working or wishing to work in regulated activity that are referred to us on the grounds that they pose a possible risk of harm to vulnerable groups. There are two principal routes by which referrals are made to the ISA. Firstly, when a person applies for ISA registration, any convictions or cautions which are considered relevant would trigger a referral. The other way a referral would be made is where an employer or an organisation, for example, a regulatory body, has concerns that a person has caused harm or poses a future risk of harm to children or vulnerable adults. In these circumstances the employer or regualtory body must make a referral to the ISA.
Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB)
Under the Children Act 2004, each local authority is required to set up a Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB). The legislation followed concern over high profile instances of child abuse, such as the Victoria Climbie case. LSCBs are responsible for local arrangements for protecting children and young people. They provide inter-agency guidelines for child protection Where someone has concerns relating to anyone who holds a position of trust or responsibility for children or young people, these should be discussed with and reported to the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO).
3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse
I have identified two separate reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse (below). The first is a link to the tv documentary Panorama and the second is an article reported in the daily mail on 23 November 2011.
The attached link from the BBC Panorama programme show how on the top floor of a special hospital, locked away from their families and friends, a group of men and women are subjected to a regime of physical assaults, systematic brutality, and torture by the very people supposed to be caring for them.
The victims are some of the most vulnerable in society – the learning disabled, the autistic, and the suicidal. In a Panorama Special, Paul Kenyon exposes the truth about a gang of carers out of control, and how the care system ignored all the warning signs.
Daily Mail – article printed 23/11/11 by Daniel Martin, Whitehall Correspondent
Cruelty of the carers: Damning report into home help for the elderly finds neglect so appalling some wanted to die
‘These small acts of cruelty are being enacted, possibly unthinkingly, every day’
Cancer victim, 76, had to struggle to kitchen to heat up a meal – because it was claimed health and safety rules meant home helpers could not operate a microwave
Another patient, her 90s, put to bed at 2.45pm
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2064957/Elderly-people-abused-carers-Neglect-bad-pensioners-wanted-die.html#ixzz23Xe5Hjrp
Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse
My company policies and procedures will outline my specific work role regarding safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse and the mandatory yearly ‘safeguarding of vulnerable adults training will make me aware of the legislations dedicated to abuse, and my role in safeguarding vulnerable adults.
4. Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse
Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
Working with person centred values:
When taking a person centered approach the carer would be working with the service users, discussing their needs and preferences for care. This approach would enable the service user to gain trust in the carer, by having a caring person who they can talk to. The carer would then gain a deeper understanding of the service users preferences and beliefs. Thus, empowering the service user, upholding their rights and beliefs and reducing the risk for abuse.
Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_adopting_a_person_centred_approach_which_offers_choices_and_upholds_rights_can_empower_an_individual_and_help_to_reduce_the_likelihood_of_abuse#ixzz23u4FTLNw
Encouraging active participation
Encouraging active participation builds self esteem, therefore the service user will refuse to tolerate abuse and will be more inclined to report it. They are also around other people when actively participating, which will help to build friendships in which they can share things – they may tell one of these friends if abuse should happen, which could lead to the service user obtaining help.
Promoting choice and rights
Service users have a right to dignity and freedom from discrimination. They should be treated with respect and shown that their feelings are considered in the care they receive. Service users should be empowered by being given choices and encouraged to make their own decisions, in this respect the likelihood of being abused by a carer is diminished.
Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse
Promoting choice and rights is also addressed by having an accessible complaints procedure. This may be included in a service user’s ‘welcome’ pack and backs up the service user’s rights, thus enabling the person to know who they can go to with a complaint or concern about any aspect of their treatment or care. This will give the person confidence in being able to file a complaint, who to complain to, the procedure to follow and what will happen when they have complained.
5. know how to recognize and report unsafe practices
Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of service users
This can include a variety of practices, such as, carers not been properly/adequately trained for using equipment (eg hoists etc), carelessness, being too tired to carry out the role correctly, ‘cutting corners’ due to time restrictions, inexperience, faulty equipment being used.
Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified
If unsafe practices are identified they need to be reported to my immediate line manager so that the person identified can be retrained or the condition remedied to prevent further damage.
Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response
The national minimum standards (NMS) calls upon all care providers to have whistleblowing arrangements (which my organization also has), which will protect me and my job when I report my concerns. Whistle blowing is about