How modernity How Ministry Of Tourism Develop Tourism Industry Malaysia Philosophy Essayarises through various theories

Charles Taylor two theories of modernity

Modernization is a term that is usually used to distinguish the present from the traditional or earlier aspects. While there are many ways of distinguishing the

The Ministry Of Tourism Malaysia can help to develop tourism in Malaysia by hosting different international events, giving discounts on holidays seasons, special packages, discounts for the elderly and childen, develop more natural attractions such as the lime stone mountins in Ipoh, preserving the natural beauty of the many natural attractions that Malaysia has to offer, start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia (meaning the transport system, public toilets, road safety is expected). Better night entertainment and to solve the corruption problem in Malaysia. Clean up all the dirty beaches, cheaper airline tickets for holiday seasons. … by doing so customers from other countrys would be attracted to come to Malaysia for a holiday visit and therefore causing the tourism industry in Malaysia to increase thus bringing in more profit to the country for future developments and planning.


In your opinion how Ministry Of Tourism can develop the tourism industry in Malaysia.

The Ministry Of Tourism in Malaysia will be able to develop the tourism industry in Malaysia if they are willing to give out special discounts for familys who do not earn as much so has to purchase a ticket for a holiday to Malaysia at a lower price. By hosting a international concert with famous overseas celebrities will help to attract forigners to come and see the concert. Fans may even go on tour with them and follow them around therefore increasing tourism income in Malaysia. Giving discounts for holiday seasons, discounts for the elderly and children. Along with full packages for familys. Sometimes most familys want to take their parents or children on holiday with them but are unable because of the high price on airline tickets. Also to allow familys of working class (economic class) able to afford to come on holidays at lower prices. Full packages meaning accomodations travel guides and more… giving them the experience to sight seeing without any problems. Tourists who have problems while on holiday can now be able to go to various tourist spots. Tour guides will help them to get around easily. By preserving and developing the natural environment in Malaysia for example Ipohs lime stone mountains which is a natural beauty that can attract tourist from other countries to come and visit Malaysia. By developing some free land to build some kind of entertainment for example a water theme park or dry theme park can also attract familys to come and enjoy relaxation. At the moment most of the natural attractions of Malaysia are being destroyed for profit and also causing pollution. By stopping the destruction of the natural attractions however you can develop something better for example a water theme park or exploration activity to entertain tourists. Cheaper alcohol entertainment. Tourists will want to enoy a good night out where alcohol is at a decent price. Most places nowadays the beer is very expensive and tourists are not able to enjoy a good night out without spending a lot of money. The prices of alcohol is important to attract tourists to a club or pub for a drinking session.

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Another main point is to start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia meaning that tranports (taxis, trains, buses) public rest room anything that a tourist is able to use. A tourist is not going to use a dirty rest room and this may create a very bad experience in Malaysia. Taxi fares are another major problem because many taxi drivers are taking advantage of foreigners causing them a lot of money on transportation. Overall only taxis are cheating tourists, buses and train systems are better than the taxis. The many night markets where stalls are selling fake jewellery or perfumes which have been tampered with. I had this experience before where I bought a perfume in a famous night market in Penang when I was a tourist here myself many years ago. Where I bought a bottle of Hugo Boss perfume that smelled like an ointment used for curing cramps and muscle aches. So by developing the infrastructure of Malaysia will help to increase tourism in Malaysia where tourist will not be taken advantage off. Corruption in Malaysia is a big issue where corrouption has taken its toll on tourism where illegal items are being sold, harrasment from corrupted police where foreigner have to pay or something. Solving corrouption will help to improve tourism in Malaysia. Tourists come to Malaysia wanting to enjoy water sports however there are only a few beaches where tourists can enjoy sports but are disgusted by the dirty beach itsself. So making sure that tourists are pleased with beaches is very important. so cleaning up the beaches are important for successful tourism in Malaysia. Many tourists are unable to purchace air tickets from foreign countries. Therefore lowering air tickets also help the poor touriststo be able to come to Malaysia for holiday. By doing all this will help to increase tourism rate will increase tremendously.


With all this knowhow the Ministry Of Malaysia should have no problem to increase tourist rates. So by allowing discounts for flights to Malaysia will encourage familys of the lower income to come for a holiday. Along with having cheaper airline tickets for all customers will also help with promoting tourism in Malaysia and also to attract tourists.

Having discounts for the elderly and children. In most cases where tourists want to go on holiday they cannot do so because they cannot afford to buy many tickets and this is a problem for them to come with their children and grand parent. With special discounts for touists where children and elderly citizens gain a discount in price of the tickets thus encouraging tourists to come. Giving special packages to tourists will help them find their way around for example having tourist guides and so on. Giving tourists the best experience they can possibly get which will then encourage tourists to come.

Develop more natural attractions such as the lime stone mountins in ipoh and preserving the natural beauty of the many natural attractions that Malaysia has to offer for example all the caves and lime stone mountains which are being destroyed for natural resources.

Start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia (meaning the transport system, public toilets, road safety is expected) by developing all the transportations tourists will have no problem getting from A to B . Better alcohol entertainment in most places for night enjoyment, solve the corruption problem in Malaysia, clean up all the dirty beaches. These all all the main key factors inorder to promote and increasing Malaysia tourism industry.

Question 2

What is happiness? What constitutes happiness for one and not for another?

Happiness is the feeling that one will feel when he/she is pleased or not. There are many ways that one can be happy or become happy for example when some one says something nice to you or compliments you. But must be careful on what you say to some one as for if said to you it be a nice thing but to another might see it as an insult. One man word can be another man poison. Making sure that the words you say are correct in the way you mean to say it. Another way of making some one happy is when you compliment their looks but do not sound sarcastic when complimenting someone. Happiness can be achieved in many ways complmenting, seeing something you like, receving something you always wanted and so on. There are many ways to make some one happy in order to be happy yourself.

Question two answer:

What is happiness well basically; what is the purpose of life? It is to become happy.

The country or society that people live in, they all have the same desire “to become happy”. However there are many ideals as difficult to grasp as happiness, in our life we will experience happiness and unhappiness but we still are ignorant as to what happiness really is.

They are many ways that one can say to make someone happy or that someone can do to make you happy. Happiness come in all shapes, sizes and forms. But there are many ways that one can get upset from complimenting and so on. For example sounding sarcastic when praising someone. So being careful on how you saythings to people even if your complimenting someone they can see it as sarcasm. They could find it offensive or disrespectful by the way you say it. The are many thing you can say to someone to make them feel happy for example complimenting ones looks, just saying something to someone who is depressed to make then feel better with themselves. There are also many things that one can do to make someone feel happy who is depressed. For example making a fool of yourself to make him/her cheer up. Inviting him/her out to hang out and have a drink. But you must always remember that “one mans happiness can be another mans poison” This basically means that praising one person can be equal to making fun of another. This is called “back stabbing someone” always try to avoid talking about people to try make someone feel happy. Happiness is not worth the trouble if one person is happy but by doing so you hurt another person in the process. Sure you can think that they would not know about it but you would be supprised.

When talking with someone there are many ways where one can become happy where words or gestures can result in someone becoming happy or cheer up.

The meaning of life I would say is to become happy with what your doing. For example friendship or popularity can make someone become happy for the time being. Where others can envy them or begin to hate. Having friendship will cause someone to be happy, having more friends to contact with, having friend to keep then happy or cheering them up. Friendship is an important fact that consistutes towards happiness, along with popularity, when being popular one can feel happy or more the fact of being appericiated by others. Popularity can also cause some to start to envy you even jealous can be an effect of ones popularity. So then popularity can have its pro for a person and con for others. Like they say one mans food can be another mans poison.

Another cosisitution would be a security of jobs or secure income. For example a family who have children. More importantly mothers and fathers who work would look for work that has either a secure job position or secure salary. This is considered as happiness because a family will feel happy if they are able to hold a good job. Parents feeling happy that they are able to look after themselves and your children with ease.Holding a steady job and a steady salary can help some be become happy.

Children and nephews of familys can also be a factor that constitutes towards happiness. Parents with children will feel the joy of happiness once they have given birth is completed the feeling of being over joyed. To the feeling of proudness and somewhat sadness when the once baby is now a young adult and has started his own adulthood. This is one of the factors that happiness can been gained for a family. The feeling of pampering a young child to arguing with a young adult is a main factor that consists towards the happiness of children.

Satisfying the needs of a person, when someones needs has been fulfilled that person will feel the joy of happiness for example finishing an important task that you have been working on. The hard work of doing something and the outcome of that task.Example getting a raise or praised by superiors. Or the feeling of finishing reading or writing a book the feeling of proudness. All this can constitute towards happiness.

Being a good listener to someone who is talking.

By being a good listener to someone who is upset or just needs someone to talk to will cause that person to feel better. Listening to the persons feeling giving examples and advice to make him/her feel better about themselves. Also just the fact of being a good listener can help to make some one feel berrer. As they now have someone to talk to about all their problems. A good listener will change the mood and attitude of a person to become happy depending on how the conversation goes.

Keeping someone who feels lonely and give that person company.

Being a good friend by accompanying someone who needs a friends. Keeping someone company can help that person feel better and become happy. Just simply walking around or asking them out for a drink or game can help someone who is depressed become better. Happiness comes from the help of others. By simply being a good friend can help someone become happy. Happiness is about the state of ones mind. So just by being a good friend or accompanying someone can be considered as a factor of happiness.

Love can also be a factor that constitutes towards happiness

When finding love this can be found as a good factor that consists for ones happiness. When finding love it can help one feel the joys of a relationship, happiness and at times remorsful. When your are with partner you will surely feel happy having a romantic time or whatsoever the feeling will result in one being happy. Happiness can be found in the heart of all relationships. When with your partner or simply texting or messaging them will make one feel happy always.


When at home or anywhere just simply taking time off to relax yourself will help with encouraging happiness just simply enjoying yourself and have a good time. Taking a nap or sitting down after a long day work can release stress, taking time off doing things you want to do. All these can help constitute towards happiness. Relaxing oneself doing all the things that they want to do. Relaxation is a great way for one to become happy. Where a overly stressed man can take time off and relax himself, being relaxed therefore becoming happier.

Religion and religious aspects.

When one chose religion and all the many religious aspects to follow once in the religion one can feel have relaxed feeling of happiness and prosperity knowing that there are many ways to worship a certain god. If one belives that their god will protect them from harm and bad luck they will feel happy and safe from harm. Knowing that when they passed away they can go to a better place. Every religion has a diffirent god and diffirent views but in the end has the same outcome the safe feeling and happiness.

So having religion and following the religious aspects of life is a good way to ensure happiness.

A day/night out with friends

When going for a day or night out with friends one will feel happy because you can enjoy the day or night either going for a drink with friends or fully enjoying the night or going to have a singing session or simply watching a movie with friends. There are many activities where someone can be happy and enjoy themselves. Being day time or at night friends with activities to do can end up in a great time making one happy so then hanging out wih friends can be a great way to achieve happiness.

Time with your family.

when spending time with your family for example a vacation or just simply at home or a outing one can easily enjoy a good time. It is proven that when spending time with your family with make others happy and yourself as well. For example doing things that you have always wanted to do as a family such as a vacation, enjoying beautiful views and etc… Just simply having a good time with one’s family is a factor that consistutes towards happiness.

Vacations or holidays

Taking time off on a holiday season to go on a holiday / vacation is a great way to achieve happiness, going places with one’s family or alone just taking in the sights, good food or shopping all these and more activities can easily help in making one happy therefore having a good time. Some popular destinations would be Hawaii, Spain and so on. All these places also can have cultural diffirences for people who enjoy different customs. A lot good vacations are placed at good locations. So having a vacation or a holiday is a great way to achieve happiness.

Question two conclusion.

There are many ways that someone can become happy or that somebody can do to make you happy and the many ways to make yourself happy. There are many aspects towards happiness as for anyone will be able to please you or help you become happier. For example how you treat your friends and the tone of your voice. Being careful on how you say things as people can easily missunderstood your intentions, thinking that you are being sarcastic and knowing how to say the correct words and phrases to people.

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Along with the many various factors that can constitute towards happiness.Religion, friendship, love and so on all these factors can help one achieve happiness when depressed or sad. Happiness is in the eye of the beholder this mean that happiness can only be gained on how one looks at things. And also remembering that one mans food can be another mans poison. This mean to be careful on how you say things making sure that you say things correctly and not sounding sarcastic or rude.


present from the old, we might wonder how modernity arises. Many scholars have tried to explain how modernity arises through various theories. This paper will focus on Charles Taylor two theories of modernity.

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Charles Taylor postulated that modernity is not a form of life but a movement from one constellation to another. He appreciated that there are two perspectives from which modernity arises; cultural and acultural. In the cultural model, each human group has its own identity, language, virtues, vices, specific understanding of humanity and social relations. These aspects may undergo transformations with time and this influences the culture of that particular group. At this point, we have to admit that there is a difference before and after transformation, the culture will have changed by the time these transformations are manifested (Charles,).

In the acultural model, Charles tries to distinguish the present from the past as a whole. In this case, he does not look at transformation from a single culture perspective but the changes that occur to all cultures within a stipulated period of time. In this model, modernity is conceived by growth of reason for instance growth of scientific consciousness or though differentiating between fact finding and evaluation. In this case, the modernity is accounted for by intellectual and social changes. An example of this was during the ages of reason and enlightenment, industrialization and urbanization. There were imminent transformations in all cultures. While each culture has to go through these transformations, some are forced to undergo these transformations (Charles,).

Acultural modernity is such that each culture plays a principle role and is not defined by an end point in understanding these transformations from either a personal or societal perspective. Though this kind of modernity is culture neutral, it affects all cultures either positively or negatively. Sometimes, some culture may suffer from the impact of a transformation in modernity. Transformations usually arise in one culture or civilization and spread to the rest. The culture from which transformation starts is powered by its own positive visions for good. However, some cultures undergo though these transformations easily while others have a hard time. This is characterized by the difference the transformation will serve in that particular culture and not when the idea of the transformation arrived in this culture.

Charles appreciated the fact that transformations are facilitated by having certain values and understanding of things. Each culture has different perspectives on different transformations depending on their values and understanding of that transformation. In fact many developments and transformations in the last few centuries were based on culture neutral developments. Acultural theory is dominant over cultural because it shows transition from traditional beliefs to modern way of life. This may be described in scenarios such as those of urbanization and industrialization. Transformation of this type may influence cultures positively or negatively. Those cultures that valued traditional beliefs and have narrow scientific reason have difficulties in appreciating transformation.

At this point, we might wonder which theory is good and which is bad. However, there is no good or bad theory as they explain transition to modernity and show how traditional beliefs are lost. Though cultural theory is of the point of view in which we visualize one culture among others, we cannot overemphasize the fact that the first accounts of modernization and development were acultural. As most scholars believe, Charles denotes that cultural theories make value judgements impossible, acultural theories are believed to be materialistic. Despite these negative attitudes towards these theories, Charles emphasizes that they play an important role in the concept of modernization.

All in all, we cannot disregard that modernization is as a result of social and intellectual change. Charles notes that after the seventeenth century, there was imminent transformation arising from the western modernity and after these transformations, natural science was valid and the technology that accompanied this had efficacy. These transformations were embraced in some cultures while others were forced to appreciate them. Different cultures have different beliefs and through acultural theory, these civilizations are bound to come together. All civilizations will lose their traditional beliefs even those that resisted the challenge. The road to modernity eventually ends when all civilizations look alike.

Different civilizations will understand these transformations differently and have different perspectives on them. There are several levels of understanding transformations; the divine, cosmos and embodied understanding. Charles acknowledges that these different levels of understanding bring about changes in belief and shift in views of the possibilities. In this case, there are people for certain transformations while are others are against. Charles gave the example that people believed there is God but when their views changed, there was conception of atheist. This purely based on ones view and horizon or what they believe in depending on their understanding towards a certain concept.

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Although acultural theory is dominant over cultural theory of modernity, there are some limitations. This theory does not clearly show the originality of the western modernity and the fact that we tend to underestimate the nature of this transformation. Charles disregards that though modernity started in the west, it is not western specifically but a form of life where all cultures converge. It is unfortunate that some civilizations lose whatever they believe in just to hold on other transformations. This pattern lacks what Charles called rational justification. Acultural theory puts all civilizations in the same package of transformation.

Charles Taylor argues that if a civilization fails to note its contrast with other civilizations, it will have a distorted understanding of forthcoming transformations and people in that civilization will have self misunderstanding which can be very costly to the civilization. In this case, the civilization’s knowledge and background is suppressed. In other words, this may be termed as a form of colonization. It may seem that this civilization does not know itself and the relation it has to other civilizations. Despite the truths of acultural theory on evolution of modernity, it is worth noting that a change only moves us from constellation to another which throws up its values and traditions to move to the other. This is in support of the cultural theory of modernization.

There are varied views on the cultural and acultural theories of modernity. While some support one theory and disregard the other, others have negative and positive attributes of both cultures. However, we have to appreciate that though some of these facts may be true, both theories have played a significant role in explaining modernity. According to Charles, modernity has presented numerous problems in social science. Modernity is combination new practices, way of life and single forms neutral phenomenon. Charles acknowledges that there are multiple modernities which are products of depending on the self understanding and practices of different civilizations.


Charles Taylor. Two theories of modernity.


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