How health promotion contributes to the enhancement of health of an ethnic minority group of your choice?

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This study is all about how communication helps and how good communication skill is significant in health and social care environment. Effective communication is crucial for health and social care. What is communication? Communication is nothing but just the exchange of information and meaning by using symbols and signs between individuals. The sender, message, receiver and feedback are the four components used in the process of communication. And to have a continuous flow of communication it is necessary to comprehend to each component. Communication takes place in many forms like verbal, non-verbal, formal and informal, written, etc. Communication helps in comprehending human behaviour. Application of all these techniques of communication is required in health and social care. So for an effective social and health care it is essential to have good interpersonal and communication skill.

Use of Communication Skill in Health & Social Care Context

Communication skills are of great importance in any field. It is very much necessary to communicate with the target audience in the way they comprehend it and also it is of great significance to comprehend the intellectual and physical limitations of the targeted audience.

Let us simplify it by taking an example: Let us take a hypothetical situation, consider you are a doctor and practicing on a child and the child is having some heart problem. In this case you will not expect that child to comprehend the lengthy report on his heart functioning test. So definitely you would “water” it down.

Many such examples can be given to understand the importance of communication to health and social care.

Communication skill helps in organising a conversation, helps in probing the opposite person, it also helps in keeping the conversation going. Also communication skills are necessary in order to build up a good and health relation with the people using your services, also it helps in comprehending and meeting the needs of the person as well as can bond up with their friends and families. It helps in sending and receiving the information with the people taking up your services.

There are many different types of communication named one-to-one communication, group communication, formal communication and informal communication, written communication.

In health and social care generally a formal communication is used, which generally starts with the greeting. It is generally used to show respect towards the person and it is also a communication starter. A professional person generally in health and social care uses formal communication in order to speak to opposite person in regards to the services. It is exact, clear and avoids misunderstandings.

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Another communication, which is generally used in health and social care, is written communication. In health and social care environment, written communication is central to the work of any person when keeping records or in writing any reports. Different styles of writing are needed for different types of communication but the basic of all is the requirement of literacy skills. When recording any information about a patient a very formal style of writing is required.

Barriers to Communication in Health & Social Care

Many things contribute in stopping an effective communication. People working with health and social care should comprehend the barriers in order to overcome them. Effective communication is very much necessary in health and social care setting; if the communication is not effective or understandable than it would be difficult for a service user to involve in the discussion regarding the care or planning the future. Similarly, it would be difficult for a service provider to help the service user if he do not understand what the person is trying to ask.

Few of the barriers are language problems, jargons, acronyms, health issues, stress, emotional difficulties, environmental problems, misinterpretation, aggression, etc.

Let us briefly understand all the above-mentioned barriers:

Language Problem (Foreign Language): Using a language other than local or using sign language creates problem for both the service provider and user in comprehending each other. Even if someone tries and helps out in translating the message, it is again difficult to pass the message clearly.

Jargons: Technical words used by the service provider, may not be understandable by service user. For example, if a patient rushes to doctor and to diagnose the problem doctor asks the patient to do a MRI scan and blood test than that would certainly sound scary to that patient. Instead of directly imposing what to do if the doctor explain what the MRI scan is and why it is required than the patient would be more relaxed.

Acronyms: Acronyms are the initials of the shortened words. In health and social care lots of acronyms are used and they are confusing too. Sometimes subconsciously the use of acronyms is made which makes the opposite person feels left out. For example, if a health care professional says that ” you have to take these tablets TDS”. What did you comprehend from this sentence? So we feels left out her. Here TDS means three times a day. It is also related to jargon.

Health issue: When a person is not feeling well or is not in the best of his health, it becomes difficult for him to communicate effectively as he is not well. This definitely affects the service user and colleagues too. So the people who are being taken care in the hospital due to some illness might not be able to communicate like normal. Also the patients who are being treated in the hospital for their long-term sickness like Parkinson’s disease also affect their ability to communicate. So if you are working in health and social care than you should be aware about such scenarios and should be capable enough to handle it.

Stress: Stress also causes difficulty in communication. A person if stressed out might not listen properly and so he might misunderstand or misinterpret the conversation. Stress also cause difficulty in speaking or might be tearful as well.

Emotional difficulties: At times everyone faces emotional difficulties and get upset. For example, a fight between husband and wife, a split up between boyfriend and a girl friend or a bad new; all these contributes towards emotional difficulties. Here as the person is already preoccupied he might not hear to what is being said and so this might lead to misunderstanding.

Environmental Problems: It is the communication affected by environment. For example, if someone is having reading problem (due to weak eyesight) than the person will surely struggle in reading the written information in low light. A person on a wheelchair may face problem in talking to a receptionist if the desk is too high.

Aggression: Unpleasant and frightening behaviour is aggression. It can be mental, verbal or physical and can cause emotional harm or pain. For example, a person working in health and social care irritated or annoyed due to some reasons than the person to whom he is providing service might feel threatened or dominated and so might not be able to respond. This results in the offering of the bad services.

Ways to deal with inappropriate Interpersonal Communication

Selection of wrong words or use of passive vocabulary, body language misinterpretation or cultural insensitivity leads to inappropriate interpersonal communication. In such case what can be done to avoid such problem is:

Always rephrase in simpler and different words to whatever has been said in order to avoid unnecessary confusion and misunderstand.

One of the way to deal with inappropriate communication in focusing, it also helps in preventing communication barriers.

Attentive listening without interrupting is also one of the ways to deal with it.

Respectful respond should be given to person’s opinion and listener’s view should not be imposed.

One of the communication strategies for providing comfort is empathy; an empathic approach helps in comprehending.

Factors influencing Communication Process in Health & Social Care

Communication process is influenced in several ways. According to Watson, the action of caring includes communication, support, positive regards or physical interventions by the nurse (1985 cited in Kozier at el, 2004, p.419). A sense of care is felt through communication, although a lot depends on interpersonal attitude as well. A sense of importance and worth is felt when respect is given and opinions and ideas are accepted and not judged. Also a terrible feel during an interaction is also a factor of communication barrier. Judgemental action, probing, agreeing/disagreeing, stereotyping, rejecting are the non-therapeutic responses (Kozier at el, 2004, p.432).

Cultural Factors Influencing Communication Process

What is Culture? Culture refers to beliefs, shared and learned values and behaviour, which is common to a particular group of people (Orbe & Bruess, 2005). Music, food, dress, customs and celebration are also included in culture. Communication and culture are the two inseparable. Culture is a significant part of our perspective through which we see the world. Culture is shaped by communication and is also learned through communication. Communicating with people from same culture is different and communicating with people from different culture is a different experience. Although culture is powerful, they are frequently influencing conflicts and unconscious. Always remember two things about culture; one is that culture are always changing and the other is they communicate to symbolic dimension of life.

According to Stella Ting there are three ways where communication process is affected by culture. First is “Cognitive Constraint” which is the reference frame that provides surrounding that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second is “Behaviour Constraint”; it is about culture having their own rules of behaviour regarding verbal and nonverbal communications. For example, how much distance should be maintained when talking to the other person, whether to look in the other person eye or not, etc? The final one is “Emotional Constraint”; every culture has their own way of showing emotions. For example, there are many cultures that get emotional when debating on an issue; they yell, cry, etc. While many cultures tend to remain calm and keep their emotions hidden. All these cultural difference leads to communication problems. This is more likely to happen when dealing with cross cultures. To overcome these problem only awareness regarding the cultures is needed.

Legislation, Code of Practice and Policies in Health & Social Care

Legislation- Legislation are the laws made by parliaments, these laws shows the right of an individual, group or an organisation. All the health & social care settings should comprehend the significance of sticking to legal guidance as this can defend against the poor practice. For example, the data protection acts, freedom of information act, care standards act, race relation act, etc.

Policies- In order to promote equal opportunities and strengthen the code of practice of particular professional bodies it is must for an organisation to have policies and procedures. Policies includes confidentiality, harassment and bullying, health and safety, equal opportunities, risk assessment, etc.

Code of Practice- Since 2000, it has become vital for all health and social care settings to have a professional code of practice. In order to inform the practitioner about their rights and responsibilities and to guide the code of practice is kept. It is mandatory for all health and social care worker to carry out an induction period where the proper training leading to appropriate qualification is given. Same code of practice is followed by Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and England.

Health & Social Care Services with specific Communication needs

People having cognitive impairment, language and sensory deficit, structural deficits and paralysis need specific communication (Kozier et al. 2004, p.438). In general, the care worker uses the SOLER technique by Egan (1986), it helps in effective communication with the clients, and makes them feel safe and trust the caregiver.

SOLER stands for:

S- Sit squarely in relation to the patient

O- Open position

L- Lean slightly towards the patient

E- Eye contact

R- Relax

This technique helps in good interaction and can be used for both; people with or without any special needs. Depending on the type of communication impairment different strategies and techniques can be used.

For people with hearing problem or who are deaf, BSL (British Sign Language) was introduced which was eventually accepted by UK government officially in 2003 and now this sign language has become universal. But it is different in each place of origin. Not only people with hearing impairment learn this language but also the people who interact with these people learn this language. For example, friends and families. Also Lip-speaking is a technique used for deaf. In lip-speaking interaction through facial expression, gesture and mouth is done without making any sound.

There is one more technique, which is used for people with learning difficulties such as structural deficit and paralysis and cognitive impairment. It is known as Makaton. Makaton uses common vocabulary and is much simple. It uses symbol, action as well as speech, unlike BSL. This is a very helpful technique for people with limited ability to communicate.

For Blind people reading and writing method through Braille is used. It is useful for every individual who is completely dependent on sense.

Finally, Human Aids, Human aids are the people helping communicate with each other. Translator, interpreter, etc are the examples of human aids.

Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in Health & Social Care

ICT provides great support for care professional and other staff in order to provide effective, fast and convenient care. Visible and workable ICT is required in order to deliver high standards. In order to get the quality outcome data and to give the best possible care to people it is needed to exploit ICT.

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Individual’s quality care depends on easy access to care plans and electronic records. It must be capable enough to distribute information across health and social care. ICT helps in delivering more effective and better healthcare services. ICT helps doctors, hospitals and pharmacist for taking better care of our health. ICT helps in saving lives, improving patients care, helps in reducing cost in health care.

For example, a patient with heart problem will be carrying a monitor, which will alarm the doctor if any changes in patient condition and will let them do their task.

ICT use is central to social work, which is concerned with sharing assessments and exchanging information with other professionals and practitioners. Quickly and securely medical data can be exchanged. ICT has made the operation simpler than before.

The basic ICT at health & social care includes:

Quality care (efficient and effective care service)

Empowerment (patients involving in their own care activities)

Availability (waiting time, access and better utilization of resources)

Care continuity (information sharing and coordinating with care provider)

Patient safety (risk is reduced in regards to patient harm)

Some of the technologies used at health care are CDMS (Chronic Disease Management System), CPOE (Computerised Practitioner Order Entry), CDS (Clinical Decision Support), ETP (Electronic Transfer of Prescription), Electronic Appointment Booking, PHR (Personal Health Record), Telemedicine’s, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) & Bar-coding, etc.

ICT is used everyday at health care. ICT is used in administrative department to keep a check on in and out of the patients, to keep the records of the patients & staff as well.


This essay will examine how health promotion contributes to the improvement of health of my chosen ethnic minority which is South Asians. It will explore how health education leads to positive wellbeing. It will go on to rationalize the importance of health promotion and why it is an imperative component of nursing and other healthcare professionals in both clinical and community settings. It then moves on to examine the diverse factors affecting health and explore the links between ethnicity and health, as well analyses how social inequalities may possibly exist and could be the reasons for health differences. This essay will select three diseases that affect South Asians. A rationale will be given for this choice. Relevant literature will be used to support my discussion

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In order to present my essay, the understating of health is crucial. It is thought that health is an extended perception which can represent a variety of meanings and can be defined from diverse perceptions. It means different things to different people, and the perceptive of health is said to be influenced by cultural, socioeconomic and individual contexts. Seedhouse (2001). It cannot be defined purely in terms of anatomical, physiological or mental attributes hence the accurate definition depends on the individual. Davey, Gray and Seale (1995). The view on health can consequently be derived from where the person expressing the view is located in terms of social class, gender, ethnic origin, culture and occupation. Whitehead and Lrvine (2010) agree with statement that the definitions of health are varied and embody several altered conceptualization of health.

There are three models that are used to try and reach a profound view of health. These are the Biomedical, Bio physiological and social models. The biomedical model focuses on the direct underlying causes of diseases and treating them. The bio physiological focuses on the attitude and behaviour of individuals, lastly the social model focuses on social influences of health in terms of inequalities such as access to adequate housing and health care.

The western scientific medical model has a negative view on health and describes health as the absence of diseases. Whilst medical model is the most dominant philosophy in the west it is not all embracing. It relies on a theory of normality that is not broadly been acknowledged, it also ignores peoples` views on their own health and moreover it focuses on pathology and malfunction which leads practitioners reacting to ill health rather than being proactive and promoting health. Naidoo and Wills (2009, p6-7 & p15)

The positive view is described by the Worlds Health Organisation (WHO) (1946) as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not purely the lack of disease or infirmity. WHO view health as a fundamental human right. This view takes a more holistic view of health. These particular views on health have been openly confirmed by the Jarkata Declaration which linked health to social and economic development (WHO 1997). Naidoo and Wills (2009, p15). Naidoo and Wills (2009) cited that the WHO stirred the meaning of health promotion away from deterrence of specific diseases towards health and well-being of the whole population. The aim was to stop experts and professionals entirely defining health issues and let the public define it according to how the public view health not only in terms of anatomy but include social factors as well. Nightingale, 1969 and Ewles, Simnett (2003) also view health holistically. Nightingale defines it as a state of being well and using all powers the individual holds to the fullest extent. Kozier, Erb,Berman, Snyder, Lake and Harvey (2008 p51). Ewles, Simnett (2003) views state that health is seen as resources for everyday life not the objective of living.

With that in mind this essay will try to define health promotion. Different authors have uttered their view on health promotion. According to Whitehead and Irvine (2010), health promotion practice highlights on societal deeds, tackling the causes of health. Kemm and Close (1995) states that health promotion is any activity that intends to prevent disease or promote and improve health and wellbeing. Health promotion is a process that educates individuals and enables people to take control of their lives and alter life styles to attain positive health. Maville and Huerta (2002) agree and say that health promotion is any attempt directed at enhancing the quality of life lead by different individuals and their well-being. World Health Organisation (2005) define health promotion as the process by which people advance knowledge and understanding of  health associated issues  that affect  their everyday lives.

Health promotion is a significant feature as it raises awareness of wellbeing issues for the general public. This enables them to be in command and be responsible for their lives in terms of positive health and illness (Tones and Green, 2006). Health education aims are to motivate and persuade people to make wiser choices and make changes to their life styles, and essentially equip people with the skills, understanding and self-confidence to make those choices and changes, in order to achieve or maintain positive health. This will seek to educated public  about risks and benefits associated with unhealthy lifestyles, enabling people to adopt healthy lifestyles, make informed choices and motivate them to become better self-managers of their health, this is affirmed by Young and Hayes (2002).  Young and Hayes state that the purpose of health promotion practice is to advance and safeguard health. Health promotion can consequently be seen as movement towards the achievement of health as a basic human right for all.

The ethnic minority I will look at will be South Asians. Ethnicity is a complex belief that is used to cite those with a mutual culture, social back ground, land and religion. Race is a mere biological marker of difference. This is extensively used to describe populations; however there is minor deviation in the genetic composition of the different groups. Naidoo and Wills (2009)

According to Fernando (1991), race is categorised by physical appearance, determined by inherited ancestry and perceived as a permanent aspect that cannot be changed. He also states that culture is characterised by behaviour attitudes, determined by family views and perceived as a changeable effect.  Lastly he describes ethnicity like its characterised by sense of belonging and group identity, determined by social pressures and psychological need and perceived as partially changeable

This essay will look into the health needs for this minority.  It will look at Coronary heart disease (CHD) and a few related issues including smoking and Diabetes.

According to Diabetes UK, Diabetes mellitus is a state where by the amount of glucose (sugars) in the blood is elevated since the body cannot use it appropriately. There are two main types. Type 1 diabetes progresses if the body cannot generate any insulin. Insulin is a hormone which assist’s the glucose to penetrate the cells where it is used as fuel by the body. Type 1 diabetes usually appears by the age of 40. It is the least common of the two main types and accounts for around 10 per cent of all people with diabetes. It is also known as IDDM -Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Andrew J Krents and Clifford J Bailey (2005).  Type 2 diabetes develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough, or when the insulin that is created does not work properly (known as insulin resistance). In most cases this is linked with being overweight. This type of diabetes usually appears in people over the age of 40, though in South Asian and African-Caribbean people, it often appears after the age of 25. However, recently more children are being diagnosed with the condition some as young as seven. Type 2 diabetes is the more frequent of the two main types and accounts for around 90 per cent of people with diabetes. It is also known as NIDDM Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Andrew J Krents and Clifford J Bailey (2005)

In UK, there are 2.6 million citizens who have been diagnosed with diabetes. (Diabetes 2009) and by 2025 the figures will increase to about four million individuals with diabetes in the UK. Type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in those of South Asian origin and up to three times more recurrent amongst populations of African and African-Caribbean origin. DOH (2001).According to the Health Survey for England 2004, the rate of doctor-diagnosed diabetes is roughly four times as common in Bangladeshi men, and almost three times as dominant in Pakistani and Indian men associated with men in the overall population. In women, diabetes is more than five times as probable among Pakistani women, at least

three times as probable in Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean women, and two-and-a-half times as likely in Indian women, compared with women in the overall population. DOH (2001)

According, to Roglic G, Unwin N, Bennett PH et al (2005), diabetes is the fifth most common cause of death in the world. Life expectancy is reduced on average by more than 20 years in people with Type 1 diabetes and up to 10 years in people with Type 2 diabetes. DOH (2001). However good diabetes management has been shown to decrease the threat of difficulties, yet if let undiagnosed it can be linked with severe difficulties including Heart disease, stroke, impaired vision, kidney disease, nerve damage and amputations leading to incapacity and premature mortality.

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) can be defined as a disease relating to the process that affects the coronary arterial circulation with consequences for the heart and its ability to function. D. Newby, J. Cockcroft and I. Wilkinson (2005). Dr C. Davidson a cardiologist at Brighton derived a book in order to help public understand heart related complications defined CHD as the clogging up of the arteries with fat through a process called Atheroma. When the arteries become clogged up with fat they become narrow and restrict blood flow which can lead to serious complications.

CHD is said to be one of the major causes of mortality and mobility in the western world. D. Newby, J. Cockcroft and I. Wilkinson (2005). However also state that death rates from CHD have been declining over the past decade. The government report The Boyle Report (2004) backs the writers as the reports imply that individuals are managing CHD well due to the increase in invasive procedures like coronary bypass and angioplasty as well enhanced pharmacology intervention together with cholesterol -lowering statins and improved antithrombotic agents.

Research carried out by  the South Asian Health Foundation (SAHF) cited that although Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is accountable for about one in five men in all deaths and one in six women, South Asians are 50% more likely to die prematurely from CHD than the general population. Though CHD can impinge on every person it affects those from certain groups more than others. CHD is more predominant in South Asians. This includes people from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indian sub-continent countries of India. It is not completely stated why South Asians suffer from heart disease more than other groups but several theories exist. It is said that South Asians may genetically be more susceptible to developing CHD, also that there are some unconfirmed risk factors including insulin resistance and central obesity.

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However even though people are living longer now ,Linda Ewles stated that the period between 1988-1992,in South Asians CHD death rates where 38% higher in men and 43% higher in women compared to the general population of England and Wales. However the relatively disadvantaged socio-economic has been argued to be the under lying cause of heart disease.

Researchers have found that there is a link between CHD with lifestyle. The major determinants of CHD cited by Linda Ewels (2005) are high levels of a particular fat (LDL- Low Density Lipoprotein) in the blood stream, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of exercise and obesity. In terms of smoking, the principal constituents of cigarette smoke are tar carbon monoxide and nicotine. The tar is a complex mixture of substances that is produced as tobacco burns. The carbon monoxide that is released is also harmful to the body system. The impact of smoking goes much further than the direct effects on the individual smoker, it also extends beyond personal health factors, to economic, environmental and social effects. Linda Ewels (2005).

Evidence from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey showed that children take in twice the recommended level of sodium, their diet is still too high in saturated fat and sugars, very few young people eat enough fruit and vegetables and a few do no not eat any at all. This could account for the CHD rates in adults. Young people put them self at risk as these ultimately leads to hypertension, which is strongly related to CHD and stroke. Overall I the UK, death rates of people aged 65 and under from CHD and stroke have been declining. British Heart Foundation.  This could be the result of effective health promotion and health education. To ensure that death rates from CHD continue to decline, long term effects rather than immediate effects.

According to (Macodowall, et al 2002), healthiness and illness are impacted by different types of actions such as eating a composed diet or taking medications to reduce the risk of some diseases. The main reason for this is that, most people think of health as absence of disease instead of the overall well-being. The need for health promotion for South Asians is imperative. From a financial perspective it is costing the government around seven billion a year. D. Newby, J. Cockcroft and I. Wilkinson (2005). Diabetes also has a significant impact on health and social services, people with diabetes are twice as likely to be admitted to hospital and least one in ten people in hospital has diabetes at any moment in time. Sampson MJ, Doxio N, Ferguson B et al (2007). They also cited that people with diabetes experience prolonged stays in hospital. This results in about 80,000 bed days per year.

When looking at life style Insufficient money can have a major impact on ethnic minority. Helman (2007) cites that they might not be able to afford a healthy life style. Healthy food choice are cost more to buy than cheap fast food ,cheaper food tends to be high in sugar and fat content. This diet is unhealthy as cheap food is usually processed and consuming a large amount can lead to obesity. People who live on a low- income might find it complicated to attain and maintain a balanced healthy diet. Helman (2007) affirm that economic factors remain the key causes of ill health, since poverty at times results in deprived nutrition. Helman (2007) states that poor health  is usually related  with a income and poverty  as  this will  influences the sort of  food, water ,clothing, sanitation, housing and medical care

With prevention in mind health promotion is aimed at targeting high risk groups who have a higher rate of likelihood of developing a specific diseases. It is normally categorised in as primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Naidoo and Wills (2009). Primary deterrence seeks to avoid the onset of ill health by the discovery of high risk groups and the provision of information and counselling,  examples of this is the screening provided to check for diabetes and the advice and information clinics publicly opened to give advice on the disease.

Secondary prevention seeks to alter health destructive actions to curtail episodes of poor health and prevent the succession of ill health. The diabetes website has a vast section on diabetes from screening to living with the disease. The NHS website as well has a section on South Asians, they have healthy eating plan aimed to help with their diet. In is argued that South Asians have a high fat diet and due to stigma they have a mentality that they have been having this food for generations and they will be fine. South Asians with diabetes have charity organisations seeking to promote their health even if already diagnosed with diabetes and the effects of its medication and all about insulin

Tertiary prevention is aimed at trying to limit disability or complications arising from chronic or irreversible condition and enhance quality of life. Obese patients, for example or the patients affected by strokes can get help in terms of rehabilitation therapy and disability that may arise due the stroke.

There are health models that exist and are used to I health promotion. These approaches have different objectives but all have mutual goals to protect and secure the public. The medical approach is intended to focus on the deterrence of ill health and premature death through medical intervention. The fundamental principles of this approach entail a top-down method of working where the health care proficient is viewed as the expert. Whitehead and Irvine (2010). This approach is popular because of its high status because it uses scientific methods such as focusing on epidemiology; this is affirmed by Naidoo and Wills (2009). They also state that is broadly used as it is expert led and they thought that this way will support the medical and health care professionals who have the expert knowledge needed.

Whitehead and Irvine (2010 verify that education approach’s purpose is to give information so increase awareness so good and better choices can be made. This approach is based on the assumptions that knowledge and equipping people with skills will help them make better decisions. This empowers the individual to take control of their own life and health status. This also works side by side with the behaviour approach which seeks to encourage individuals to adopt healthier life styles and behaviours. This is also popular as health is in the hands on the individual and the can make those changes and attain better health. Naidoo and Wills (2009).Whitehead and Irvine (2010) state that this is also a top-down, expert led way of functioning. So experts that have sufficient knowledge can persuade individual’s to make those changes.

In summation health promotion is imperative to any minority. It ultimate aim is to prevent diseases occurring and educate people about different health issues. This will enable individuals to take control. In terms of South Asians, health promotion methods are in place to health this minority are seen to have a stigma that because they have been using this diet for generation it it’s acceptable to continue eating the high fat diet. The rational for my choice is because out on practice there were a high number of patients at different times that suffered from type 2 diabetes. I learned about their diets from adults down to children. Some of my research was shocking and made me aware and understand how genetic affects our health.

Researching South Asians, was interesting and I gained valuable insight about their culture it has also stimulated me to learn more about other cultures and how and look at their needs and the statistical data available and see what health promotion methods being implemented in other ethnic minorities.

As a novice I have learnt substantial understanding about health promotions and its importance. I will use this knowledge to advance my studies and help promote heath where I can even when I am on a hospital setting or community setting.


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