Comparison of Government Types

When it comes to liberty provided by government it can be experienced or eliminated entirely based on the type of government a country exhibits. S

Modernization is a theory that looks at the domestic factors of a country with the assumption that, with help underdeveloped countries can be brought to development in using the same methods that more developed countries used. Modernization theory focuses on the social elements which facilitate social progress and development of societies, and further aims to explain the process of social evolution. This theory not only stresses the process of change but also the results of that change. Furthermore, it looks at internal functions of a society while referring to social and cultural structures and the adaptation of new ways of living. This is because internal situations in societies greatly affect the processes of modernization. A country in which favorites are rewarded and governmental corruption is rampant hampers the state’s ability to effectively progress in terms of modernization. This negatively affects the state’s economic development and productivity and eventually results in the country’s money and resources to flow out to other countries with more favorable investment environments. Such mechanisms slow the process of modernization and as a result the country falls into internal conflicts so as to aid the process of modernization due to scarcity of resources. On the other hand Modernization has over the years been hastened by globalization- as the world has become integrated on many levels (political, economic, and social); modernization has been able to spread across borders through the fact that it has encouraged the development of a global economy that focuses greatly on better utilization of resources and means of production, technology- which is a major contributor to social change through the fact that the introduction of new technologies forces people to adopt to them thus promoting social change, secularization of societies- this contributes to modernization by the fact that people become less superstitious and are therefore more welcoming to change and usage of more modern resources available to them. Despite all the positive results of modernization, it also it negative side as it leads to higher pollution levels and over population especially in urban areas, increased crime, gaps in the social structures for example the rich and the poor(rich become rich, the emergence of a middle class and the poor seem to struggle even more due to higher cost of living), local cultures suffer and the economic markets are more favorable to the already developed countries as their products tend to be more competitive as they have been through the modernization process for a longer period than the developing

Modernization is therefore measured by the following factors:

Economic growth

Increased urbanization

Technological progress


On the other hand, the dependency theory focuses on the fact that resources flow from the poor and underdeveloped states to the already developed states while enriching the latter while the poorer states continue suffering. Poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched due to the power distribution in the international system. The key tenets of dependency theory are that: Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a place for obsolete technology, and markets for developed nations, without which the wealthier nations could not have the standard of living they enjoy. Furthermore, wealthy nations actively fuel a state of dependence by various means which varies from economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, culture, sport, and all aspects of human resource development .Finally that wealthy nations normally hamper attempts by dependent nations to fight their influences through economic sanctions and/or the use of military force. Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they are not part into the developed world system but because of the place they hold in the system.

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The theory arose around 1970 as a reaction to some earlier theories of development like the modernization theory which said that all societies progress through similar stages of development, and that underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that therefore the task in helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market.

First of all, it should be said that Dependency theory was developed in response to Modernization theory out of sheer criticism of the latter theory by the supporters of Dependency theory. Naturally, this fact determined the principal difference between these theories, but, nevertheless, there are still certain similarities between Modernization and Dependency theories.

Speaking about the similarities, it is primarily necessary to point out that both theories pay a lot of attention to the gap existing between developed countries and undeveloped ones belonging to the third world. To put it more precisely, Modernization and Dependency theory stand on the ground that Western countries are the world leaders due to their higher level of development, which affects practically all spheres of life, including economic, political, social, and even cultural life (Leys, 210). As a result, there exist a strong link between developed and developing countries.

Furthermore both theories state that the experience of developed countries is followed by developing and undeveloped countries, which basically develop in the same direction as developed countries but still they cannot catch the latter up and remain in the rearguard of the world development. In stark contrast, developed countries play the key role in the development of the entire world and the integration of all countries of the world in the global economy is one of the major ways of interaction between developed and developing countries and both theories agrees that this interaction constantly increases.

At the same time, both Modernization and Dependency theories underline that the relationships between developed and developing countries is unequal and there exist a kind of dependence of developing countries on developed ones, though the views on this dependence vary considerably. Nevertheless, both theories underline the dominant position of Western countries in the modern world and leave little room for the alternative ways of the development but the western one, which is viewed as the only way of the development of the future world in the context of the global economy.

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It is worthy of mention that both theories are ethnocentric in a way because they practically ignore the possibility of the alternative development of developing countries but, instead they insist that the development of western countries will be the example developing countries, willingly or not, will follow, while, at the same time, they do not really admit the alternative ways of development of countries of the Third world (Preston, 137). However, it is worthy of mention the example of China which economy is progressing rapidly but its way of development differs considerably from the dominant western way, but this country does not meet to the basic assumptions of either of the theories.

In spite of existing similarities between Modernization theory and Dependency theory, differences between them are much more substantial and it is even possible to estimate that these theories are antagonistic in their views on the development of the world and international relationships, especially on the relationship between developed and developing countries. In fact, differences between Modernization theory and Dependency theory result from the origin of Dependency theory which, as it has been already mentioned above, was developed in response to Modernization theory. On analyzing existing differences between the two theories, first of all, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views the development of the world and relationships between developed and developing countries as the relationships of potentially equal countries which are just at a different stage of development at the moment. To put it more precisely, Modernization theory stands on the ground that western countries are well-developed and western way of development is viewed as the most successful and perspective while there is practically no other alternatives to this way of the development. This is why the supporters of this theory insist on the necessity to develop the cooperation between developed and developing countries in order to make the latter closer to the former. What is meant here is the fact that Modernization theory underlines the necessity of borrowing the experience of western countries by developing countries of the Third world (Scott 196). Basically, developing countries should follow blindly the example of more developed western countries and this will bring them economic, social, and cultural prosperity.

Naturally, to achieve this goal, developing countries should develop their cooperation in all spheres of life, including economy, politics, culture, education, and social relations, with western countries, while the latter, being more advanced compared to developing countries should help them achieve the highest level of development through education, technological assistance and consulting of countries of the Third world. In such a way, this theory views modernization of socio-economic and political life of developing countries on the basis of the example of western countries as the only possible solution of the problem of backwardness of poor countries since western way of development is, according to Modernization theory, is the only correct way to prosperity.

In stark contrast to Modernization theory, Dependency theory underlines that relationships between developing and developed countries are based not on the growing cooperation between them but rather on the dependence of developing countries on developed ones. To put it more precisely, supporters of Dependency theory stand on the ground that western countries are really more advanced than developing countries but the latter follow their example not just because they are willing to do so nor because they really believe that western way of development is really better but, in contrast, they are forced to choose the same way of development as western countries have already made in order to become a part of the world community and avoid the isolation of the country or, what is more, even the intervention of western countries in their policy. In this respect, it is necessary to underline that supporters of Dependency theory argue that western countries impose their politics and their rules to developing countries forcing them to accept western standards and norms, while any disobedience from the part of developing countries threatens by economic sanctions or even military intervention from the part of developed countries (Schelkle, 231).

In such a way, unlike Modernization theory, Dependency theory does not view the choice in favor of western way of development as the panacea from all problems or as a conscious choice that is really supported by the population and elite of developing countries but such westernization of developing countries is viewed as a violent interference of developed countries in the life of the Third world. Naturally, such a policy leads to the growing dependence of developing countries on developed ones and, therefore, makes the socio-economic breakthrough impossible. In contrast, Modernization theory believes in its possibility due to the modernization of socio-economic and political life of developing countries and their closer cooperation with developed countries, which is supposed to be a conscious and willing act of developing countries looking for ways to prosperity.


Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Modernization theory and Dependency theory are similar in their views on the modern world. To put it more precisely, both theories admit the leadership of western countries and their currently dominant position in the modern world, while undeveloped countries are characterized by socio-economic and political backwardness. At the same time, the two theories agree that the cooperation between western countries and developing countries is constantly growing and leads to their integration.

However, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views such cooperation and integration as a conscious and voluntary act from the part of developing countries, for which modernization in the western style is the only way to overcome the existing backwardness, while supporters of Dependency theory argue that such cooperation and integration is imposed to developing countries by more advanced western countries, which simply attempt to benefit from their cooperation with developing countries and their westernization becomes a way of the establishment of control over and growing dependence of developing countries on developed ones.

Regardless, the existing differences, both theories still raise a very important problem of relationships between developed and developing countries and the dominance of western countries and western civilization in the modern world.


ome offer no liberty while others offer the ultimate in liberty or a spectrum of everything in between. Some governments offer the opportunity to trade in their current oppressive circumstances for a different set of oppressive circumstances. Whatever the situation; it seems natural for individuals to seek out, or at least wish for, liberty and freedom from oppression. In the light of this idea, one can look at any type of government from a liberty perspective as an interesting indicator of a healthy society. The tables below briefly describe a handful of the types of governance, some advantages and disadvantages of each and how they express liberty among citizens.

Form: Dictatorship Example: Nazi Germany

“In a dictatorship there’s just one leader who has total control over the party and the country” (BBC, 2011, np). Propaganda is used to exemplify the dictator as a hero, although there are those who will genuinely provide support (BBC, 2011, np). “In a dictatorship the government tightly controls all aspects of the state and will often ban or tightly control groups and meetings” (BBC, 2011, np).  Dictatorships show no regard for the rights of its citizens and attempt to control all citizens, as opposition to the single party is prohibited and there are no elections (BBC, 2011, np). “The government and state is the most important thing to a dictatorship.” (BBC, 2011, np). “The government in a dictatorship controls every element of people’s lives, including radio, cinema and newspapers” (BBC, 2011, np).

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Without rights, the ability to assemble and potentially criticize or organize against government or demonstrate any form of opposition, citizens would be living under an oppressive rule. The heavy policing of information available to citizens, control of individuals behavior, and lack of say so in government affairs means liberty is non-existent under this type of rule.


  • No disagreements as with multiple parties (BBC, 2011, np).
  • No delay in forming or executing legislation.
  • Citizens go about their lives without engaging in the politics of the day.

  • Citizens are not free to make many choices and have no acknowledgement of individual rights (BBC, 2011, np).
  • There is no criticism of government and therefore no way to influence government policy (BBC, 2011, np).
  • Citizens can be prevented from knowing the truth (BBC, 2011, np).
Form: Communist State Example: China, North Korea

“Communism is the doctrine of the conditions of the liberation of the proletariat” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 42). The main tenants of Communism include the demand that all private property be abolished and calls for property and production to be owned and operated by society as a whole (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 47).  “Above all, it will establish a democratic constitution, and through this, the direct or indirect dominance of the proletariat” (Engles, 1914/n.d., p. 49). This statement appears to be an oxymoron of sorts as any democratic process would ensure liberty for all; yet, the statement also speaks of dominating a particular group of individuals in society. “Democracy would be wholly valueless to the proletariat if it were not immediately used as a means for putting through measures directed against private property and ensuring the livelihood of the proletariat” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 49). Other features include limitations on ownership of private property, expropriation over time, confiscation of the property of rebels and emigrants, organization of labor that abolishes competition amongst workers, requirement of the payment of state determined wages, an obligation to work until all private property is abolished, a formation of industrial armies, and construction of communal dwellings for all to live in; among other promises (Engels, 1914/n.d., pp. 49-50). “Society will take all forces of production and means of commerce, as well as the exchange and distribution of products, out of the hands of private capitalists and will manage them in accordance with a plan based on the availability of resources and the needs of the whole society” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).

In spite of the idea that Communism is an attempt at “liberation of the proletariat”, some may find Communism to be oppressive (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 42). The inability to own property and receive an inheritance can be considered oppressive to some, as might the requirement to depend on government for practically everything (Engels, 1914/n.d., pp. 49-50). Liberty would suffer if Communism requires seemingly heavy participation, major sacrifices and obligations.


  • “Education of all children, from the moment they can leave their mother’s care, in national establishments at national cost” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 49).
  • “Destruction of all unhealthy and jerry-built dwellings in urban districts” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).
  • “Equal inheritance rights for children born in and out of wedlock” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).
  • “Concentration of all means of transportation in the hands of the nation” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).

  • Communists “openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” (Marx & Engels, 1848/n.d., p. 34).
  • “the proletarian revolution will transform existing society gradually and will be able to abolish private property only when the means of production are available in sufficient quantity” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 49).
  • “the communist revolution will not merely be a national phenomenon but must take place simultaneously in all civilized countries” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).
  • “It will have a powerful impact on the other countries of the world, and will radically alter the course of development” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50). “It is a universal revolution and will, accordingly, have a universal range” (Engels, 1914/n.d., p. 50).
Form: Theocratic State Example:

“The Holy See is a nonterritorial entity composed of the Roman Catholic College of Cardinals and the Bishop of Rome (the Pope)” (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 225).


Theocracy “appears to be a simple concept – clerics ruling a state instead of, say, the general population via a professional class of politicians (democracy) or hereditary potentates advised by appointed specialists (monarchy)” (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 223). “Based on this definition, there are hardly any theocracies in the world today “ (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 223).

A modern definition might be, “the multiple patterns of the intertwining of religion in the language, practices, and substance of the politics of modern statehood” (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 224). The operation of this government is as follows:

“The Pope, who is elected by the College of Cardinals, governs as ‘Sovereign of the State of Vatican City’, with full legislative, judicial, and executive powers, through a commission of cardinals nominated by him. Vatican City’s system of government, which is highly anomalous, may thus be regarded as both an elective monarchy and an elective theocracy (although its representatives would be unlikely to accept that label).” (Megoran, 2009/2009, pp. 225-226).

Many individuals, particularly of other religious faiths, might find the religious substance of this type of government oppressive and a threat to their individual liberty.


  • Provide a perspective of morality to world legislation that represents a large number of individuals worldwide and without this representation this perspective may go unnoticed (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 226).
  • Can become a champion for worldwide morality in the face of oppression (Megoran, 2009/2009, pp. 226-227).

  • Legislation of morality (Megoran, 2009/2009, p. 224).
  • Limited ownership in a small amount of territory, yet comprised of members all over the world, can mean double representation for those members (Megoran, 2009/2009, pp. 225-226).
Form: Republic Example:

North America, Central America, and South America


“The Framers, or at least the disestablishmentarians among them, believed that in a republic public opinion should control the government, instead of the reverse” (McConnell, 2010, p. 944). According to Adler (n.d.), “In the sphere of political institutions, the most just form of government is a republic with universal suffrage and with a constitution that includes a bill of economic as well as political rights that secures the natural rights of all” (np). Many would find this very advantageous toward liberty. Adler (n.d.) also states that ”The supreme justice of a constitutional democracy resides in its distribution of political liberty and political equality to all, with the exception of infants and the pathologically disabled, as well as in the protection of other natural rights” (np).

It is written in Federalist Paper No. 51 that:

“It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part. Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens. If a majority be united by a common interest, the rights of the minority will be insecure.” (Madison, 1788/n.d., np)

Here guidance is given that the rights of all classes of citizens be protected. These things would, theoretically, give this style of government high marks in the liberty department. Citizens have the right to operate autonomously within the laws of society. There appears to be a great deal of liberty afforded those who are governed under a representative democracy.


  • Safeguards against oppression of its rulers (Madison, 1788/n.d., np).
  • Rights of minority groups are protected against the majority rule (Madison, 1788/n.d., np).
  • Citizens’ rights allow for a high degree of autonomy within the law (Madison, 1788/n.d., np).

  • Some powers surrendered to government for the security of all  (Madison, 1788/n.d., np).
Form: Parliamentary Democracy Example: Germany and The United Kingdom

The Saylor Foundation (n.d.) states “parliamentary systems are distinct because of the power that they place in the hands of the legislative branch” (p. 3). The Saylor Foundation (n.d.) explains the organization of this type of government:

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“This institutional configuration involves voters selecting parliamentary representatives. The party that wins the largest number of congressional seats then selects the head of government also known as the Prime Minister, Chancellor, or Premier. One characteristic that is specific to this system of government is the split executive. The split executive consists of the head of government and the head of state. As a member of parliament, the head of government controls the legislative process and sets the policymaking agenda. Conversely, the head of state serves as the ceremonial representative of the country.” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 3)

The Saylor Foundation (n.d.) futher states that:

“Because the Prime Minister is placed in power by members of his own party or a coalition containing his party, there are always commonalities in opinion across various policy areas. The legislature is neither the commander in chief nor does it have the ability to appoint and dismiss members of the cabinet. These are executive responsibilities” (n.d., p. 3)

The idea of proportional representation and accountability of government to its citizens makes this form of government uniquely suited to provide a high degree of liberty for its citizens (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., pp. 3-4).


  • “Because the Prime Minister is placed in power by members of his own party or a coalition containing his party, there are always commonalities in opinion across various policy areas” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 3).
  • Proportional representation: Not based on majority vote  (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 3).
  • “While the functions of both entities are distinct, the likelihood of cooperation is much higher” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).
  • “the legislature is a more approximate representation of the diverse political interests that are present in society” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).

  • “The large number of parties sometimes makes it impossible for a single party to gain the majority that is needed for them to select the Prime Minister” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).
  • “The diversity of opinion created by a large coalition often makes it difficult for its members to come to a consensus on policy decisions” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).
  • “the diversity of parties is sometimes so extreme that it creates significant internal dissension in the legislature, which then strains the fused relationship between the parliament and the executive” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).
  • “Disagreement within parliament can lead to deadlock or a situation where the policymaking process is brought to an abrupt halt until the conflict is resolved” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 4).
Form: Representative Democracy

a/k/a “Constitution based Federal Republic”

Example:  United State of America

“Through the electoral process, one person or a group of people are elected and assigned with the task of making decisions on behalf of the group of citizens that they represent” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2). “In a democracy the leader of the party with the most votes is in control, but they still have to answer to their political party, and the voters” (BBC, 2011, np). “In a democracy political parties represent different points of view and compete for the votes of the electorate” (BBC, 2011, np). “In a democracy political power is secured by winning a fair election” (BBC, 2011, np). “In a democracy newspapers are free to print the truth and can criticise the government when mistakes are made or if there’s disagreement” (BBC, 2011, np).

“In a democracy there’s usually less control over the films and books people can enjoy” (BBC, 2011, np). “In a democracy the government has less control over how people spend their time and what they believe” (BBC, 2011, np). “People are free to join clubs, political parties and other groups” (BBC, 2011, np).

In theory, there is a great deal of liberty afforded those who are governed under a representative democracy. Elections hold representatives accountable, open discussion and criticism about the effectiveness of government is allowed and there is very little censorship of art and information (BBC, 2011, np). Citizens are able to operate autonomously within the laws of society.


  • “political representatives are still beholden to the group that they represent, also known as their ‘constituency’” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).
  • Citizens regularly evaluate their representatives’ performance through elections which provides for accountability (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).
  • “While voters continue to engage in their everyday lives, politicians are in the thick of congressional debates” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).

  • “the power of the individual is diminished slightly” (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).
  • Relies on trust of the representative, who may or may not be in touch with what their constituents need (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).
  • The voters may respond to a perception of the adequacy on the representative’s performance (The Saylor Foundation, n.d., p. 2).
Form: Constitutional Monarchy Example:

Great Britain, Australia, Japan (British Monarchist League, n.d., np).


“A constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a written (i.e., codified), unwritten (i.e., uncodified) or blended constitution” (British Monarchist League, n.d., np). The British Monarchist League (n.d.) explains that:

“Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the Monarch may have strictly Ceremonial duties or may have Reserve Powers, depending on the constitution. They have a directly or indirectly elected prime minister who is the head of government, and exercises effective political power.” (British Monarchist League, n.d., np)

“Today constitutional monarchy is almost always combined with representative democracy, and represents (as a theory of civics) a compromise between total trust in the political class, and in well-bred and well-trained monarchs raised for the role from birth” (British Monarchist League, n.d., np).

A constitutional monarchy with a representative government would be very effective at securing liberty for the people particularly because it would be held accountable for actions by its citizens (British Monarchist League, n.d., np).


  • “Constitutional monarchy allows for certain powers of the monarch to be limited and balanced by an elected body in the form of a Parliament of elected ministers, and is therefore a democratic process drawn upon an enlightened basis for government” (Brittish Monarchist League, n.d., np).
  • “monarchs do not represent specific political views, and that they provide stability or act as a symbol of the state or nation” (Brittish Monarchist League, n.d., np).

  • Monarchs are not elected (Brittish Monarchist League, n.d., np).
  • Monarch has little power and the Prime Minister actually governs the country (British Monarchist League, n.d., np).
  • Monarch engages in a life-long commitment (Brittish Monarchist League, n.d., np).

Upon discovery of certain types of government there appears to be a distinct line of demarcation between what type of governments offer liberty as a key feature and those that offer oppression. The terms democratic, constitutional, representative and republic appear to be at the high end of the spectrum of liberty. The terms dictatorship, communism or socialism appear to be absent of or low on liberty and in some cases appear to tend toward oppression. In the case of Communism or Socialism it appears that the loss of liberty is not acknowledged directly and painted over with the promise of a better society. Before we label these governments as effective, thought should be given to whether or not individuals will want to give up the required liberties in order to make these types of governance successful.


  • BBC. (2011). Democracy and dictatorship: Key differences [Chart]. Retrieved from
  • British Monarchist League. (n.d.). Constitutional Monarchy. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from
  • Engels, F. (n.d.). The principles of Communism. In K. Marx & F. Engels (Authors), S. Moore (Trans.), & (Comp.), Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels February 1848 (pp. 42-54) [PDF]. Retrieved from (Original work published 1914)
  • Madison, J. (n.d.). Federalist paper no. 51. In Yale Law School: The Lillian Goldman Library (Comp.), The Avalon project: Documents in law, history and diplomacy. Retrieved from (Original work published 1788)
  • Marx, K., & Engels, F. (n.d.). Manifesto of the Communist party (S. Moore, Trans.). In K. Marx & F. Engels (Authors), S. Moore (Trans.), & (Comp.), Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels February 1848 (pp. 14-34) [PDF]. Retrieved from (Original work published 1848)
  • McConnell, M. W. (2010). Religion and Its Relation to Limited Government. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy33(3), 943–952. Retrieved from
  • Megoran, N. (2009). Theocracy. In R. Kitchen & N. Thrift (Eds.), International encyclopedia of human geography (Vol. 11) [PDF]. Retrieved from (Excerpted from International encyclopedia of human geography, Vol. 11, pp. 223-228, 2009, Elsevier)
  • The Saylor Foundation. (n.d.). Types of democracy. Retrieved from


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