## 1. INTRODUCTION

In cryptography, RSA which stands for Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. They present an encryption method with

## Introduction:

Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment. The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology, including research, analysis and integration of knowledge into the creative process, whereby the needs and resources of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfills the project goals. Designing is not expensive any more and every class of people can decorate their homes no matter how big the home is. Now we have developed a complete new theme for Interior Designing scheme.

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Interior design earnings vary based on employer, number of years with experience, and the reputation of the individual. For residential projects, self-employed interior designers usually earn a per-hour fee plus a percentage of the total cost of furniture, lighting, artwork, and other design elements. For commercial projects, they may charge per-hour fees, or a flat fee for the whole project.

## Project Background:

We are working for our customers according to what they want. They provide us budget and we offer them different designs. Hence every type of job is challenging for us. In the following scenario we have to complete a house right from the infrastructure to the finishing. The detail is given later. The house would be built in the new locality in the lake view society and it’s a good view for a new home. The customer is a close relative of our senior staff member and he wants it to be completely unique. So we are trying to create some plan that would minimize our cost and maximize our profits For that purpose we would have some objectives and will have to define project scope before going to start the project plan.

## Project objective:

The objectives are always high for our firm, As we know that the purpose of doing a work at customers will is not that easy. So by doing this project we would get following benefits in turn to achieve these would be our objective,

We would get an idea about the new locality and availability of workers in that area.

We will be able to attract new customers if we make that house eye catching

We may get a whole new contract from the construction companies in that area and that would be an additional bonus for us.

Hence by ding this task we would get a lot of positives. Many people hesitate to ask from us that what rates we are offering but if we construct that house in that locality then obviously they would be attracted and after noticing the cost they would surely come to us for that project.

## Project Scope:

As we know that each project scope is limited to some specifications. Like this project we have a scope that is divided under the following headings.

## Deliverables :

1. A 2500 square foot, 2 bathroom, 5 bedroom , 1 living room, finished home

2. Kitchen complete with all the tools set : microwave, dishwasher, table

3. Fish pound in the back yard with wooden fence

4. Automatic watering plant installed in the garden

## Milestone:

1. Application of building approved: 20 august 2010

2. Foundation: 1 September 2010

3. Clearing & exvacation ,footing , framing n drying in ,installation window n door , roofing 24 December 2010

4. Installation Electricity and Plumbing: 28 December 2010

5. Final inspection : 1 January 2011

## Technical requirement:

1. Home must meet local building codes

2. All windows and doors must pass NFRIC class 40 energy ratings

3. Exterior wall insulation must meet an “R” factor of 21

4. Ceiling insulation wall insulation must meet an “R” factor of 21

5. Seizure must pass seismic stability codes

## Limits and Exclusions:

1. Owner responsible for landscaping

2. Refrigerator isn’t included in kitchen set

3. Contractor responsible for subcontracted work

4. Any work delayed for nature risk is not contractor responsibility

5. Worker only work from monday – friday at 8 am- 5 pm

A style, or theme, is a consistent idea used throughout a room to create a feeling of completeness. Styles are not to be confused with design concepts, or the higher-level party, which involve a deeper understanding of the architectural context, the socio-cultural and the programmatic requirements of the client.

We want to expand our business and create a monopoly in this business. This business is still out of the reach of middle class but if our business started as we have perception in our mind then our business would remove the perception from the minds of the people that having a well decorated home is an expensive task. These days having a middle class home in good locality cost round about $25000 to $100000. But they still can’t get the home of their choice. After our way of thinking they would be able to build their own home in less then 35lakh. Our main target would be the newly established housing schemes, Our Marketing plan covers all these aspects and we have a well thought plan to capture these markets. Initially we are going to open an office in main market area because we want to have a good image in the minds of the people.

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

## Budget/Costing:

## Organization Breakdown Structure:

## Project Manager

## Operations Manager

## Marketing Manager

## Director R&D

## Workers

## Architect

## Finance Manager

## Assistant Finance Manager

## Office Boy

## Security Guard

## HR Manager

Assistant HR ManagerOrganization is break down according to our project. Each member of the team will do some worof its kind in this project. So both work break down structure and organization breakdown structure are designed to make sure smooth completion of the project. The cost is divided in these tasks and from time to time. The cost structure is given by the customers and is divided in the following way.

Explanation:

We have divided our work in two different situations. First one is the Organization development and how to manage our organization and the tasks performed in it. The second one is the short way in which just the operations manager will be involved to complete the project without any intervention of the team. Still it will be team task. Hence the organization member such as accountant and managers will be involved in setting the Deal. The project by the Customer is a subset of the whole project. The income statement and cost and expenditure is given on left column. Following is the projected income statement for the year 2010. .

The five members will perform their tasks and then the second stage of implementation will be as shown in the diagram.

Total task time is as follows.

We have got 50 days to complete the project. Hence what we have in hand is these 11 tasks to be completed. Now by using our pert chart we will find out which one is the shortest path to be completed

PERT CHART FOR THE INTERIOR DEISGNING

In the above diagram, the A to N are 14 different tasks for our project of Interior designing. We can say them like vendering, procurement, and hiring etc. These tasks are to be performed and we have tried to make sure that the work is done quite smoothly. The critical path is the one which is mentioned with arrow head. The critical path shows the least amount of time that is required to complete the project on hand,. The tasks on same level can be eliminated and hence we can short our time frame to complete a particular task. To complete this task the total task time was 5months. Hence we have achieved our task to be very precise with this technique.

The above mentioned is the gantt Chart for the project. Where A to N are projects and their task time mentioned in the table above. So to accomplish the task we will do these task simultaneously as some of these will be from different departments. Moreover, the Tasks performed in these departments are different from each other and their level is also different. Hence we can easily make sure that the project has some space to cut short in time and money.

## RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN;

Risk Management is very necessary in Interior Designing Business like we have to be very much precise with our task and what we provide to our customers. Many customers complain that the standard was not good or the product is not delivered on time. Hence to tackle all these and more such issues we have to be pr planed about such problems. So following is the scope of our risk Management plan.

As we know that in Interior Designing business we often have to deal with such type of problems like procurement. Labour force, user backlash and material delay. Hence these issues must have a first hand solution. Also its is a part of business policy and strategy. Now we have developed following points for each of such problem.

## Procurement problem

As we know that to solve some procurement problems we must have dealers more than our basic needs so we make sure that we keep a well contacted such dealers.

## User Backlash

It often become very difficult to deal with the users hence we have a plan to develop a form and a dually signed agreement. In which every such issue must be covered. Hence after sale service is the other solution for this problem.

## Labour Force:

We have labour force twice the labour force that is required because we don’t have to pay them a permanent amount we just hire them on daily wages.

## Material Delay:

We keep enough inventory so that if supplies may get delayed then we keep up with the task and the work wouldn’t get delayed.

the property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences; the fitst one is couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intended recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. The second one is the message can be signed using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature [1].

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

## 2. DESCRIPTION OF RSA

## 2.1 RSA Algorithm:

The RSA algorithm operates by encrypting plaintext in blocks and every plaintext block is an integer between 0 and n-1 for some value n, which leads to a block size â‰¤log2 (n), where the usual size of n is 1024 bits. According to William Stallings the RSA algorithm is described in brief as follows [2].

## RSA Key generation

In order to generate keys select two large prime numbers p and q, where pâ‰ q, and calculate n = p Ã- q; where n is known as a modulus. Then Calculate Ø(n) = (p âˆ’ 1)(q âˆ’ 1); where Ø(n) is known as the totient function. Choose an integer e, so that gcd (Ø(n),e) = 1; 1 < e < Ø(n); where e is an exponent. In addition calculate the secret exponent d, so that dâ‰¡e-1 (mod Ø(n)), where d is the multiplicative inverse of e in mod Ø(n). Finally compute public key PU = {e, n} and compute private key PR = {d, n}

## RSA Encryption

To encrypt a message the sender starts by achieving the recipient’s public key (n, e). Then represents the plaintext message as a positive integer m, where mRSA Decryption

To decrypt a message the receiver uses his private key (n, d) to calculate m= cd mod n and extracts the plaintext from the message representative m.

## RSA Authentication

Fig1:Public Key Authentication To implement authentication system, the server first execute public key authentication among clients by signing a distinctive message from the client with its private key and thus creates a digital signature. The signature is then sent back to the client and the client authenticates it with the server’s known public key. To verify the message m the server attaches a digital signature s with the actual message and passes on the pair. The server computes s from m by using server’s private key with the help of this equation: s â‰¡ mdmod n. Any person who already knows the given public key which is linked with the server can easily authenticate that the message m and its signature s is valid by testing that: m â‰¡ semod n[3].

## 2.2 A real life example of RSA Algorithm:

To demonstrate the RSA algorithm select two random large prime numbers p=61 and q=53 and compute n=p*q=61*53=3233. Further calculate totient Ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1)=(61-1)(53-1)=60*52=3120. Then choose e>3120 comprise to 3120, Here I choose e=17, and choose d to satisfy deâ‰¡ 1 (mod Ø (n)) = 1 (mod 3120) and d<3120. So the actual value of d=2753.

So according to the computed value:

Public Key PU= {17, 3233} Private Key PR= {2753, 3233}

For example to encrypt m=123, we calculate

Encryption C = Me mod n=12317 mod 3233=855

To decrypt c=855, we calculate

DecryptionDecryption M = Cd mod n= 8552753mod 3233= 123

17

123 mod3233=855

2753

855mod 3233=123

Ciphertext

855

Encryption

PR=2753,3233

Plaintext

123

123

Plaintext

PU =17, 3233

Figure 2: Example of RSA Algorithm

## 2.3. RSA ALGORITHM ATTACKS

Four possible approaches to attacking the RSA algorithm are as follows:

a. Brute force: This involves trying all possible private keys. The defence against the brute-force approach is to use a large key space. However, because the calculations involved, both in key generation and in encryption/decryption, are complex, the larger the size of the key, the slower the system will run.

b. Mathematical attacks: There are several approaches, all equivalent in effort to factoring the product of two primes. Under the Factoring Problem William Stallings identifies three approaches to attacking RSA mathematically [2]:

Factor n into its two prime factors. This enables calculation of f(n) = (p 1) x (q 1), which, in turn, enables determination of d e1 (mod f(n)).

Determine f(n) directly, without first determining p and q. Again, this enables determination of d e1 (mod f(n)).

Determine d directly, without first determining f(n).

c. Timing attacks: These depend on the running time of the decryption algorithm whereby a snooper can determine a private key by keeping track of how long a computer takes to decipher messages. Although the timing attack is a serious threat, there are simple countermeasures that can be used, including the following [4]:

A simple way to prevent timing attacks, regardless of algorithm, is to ensure that all operations with a given algorithm take the same amount of time by “quantizing” the operations into a fixed time period. This approach is highly dependent on the environment, and may degrade performance, but it requires no modification to the algorithm implementations.

For RSA, one can prevent the attacks by introducing what is called “blinding” into the cryptographic operations, without changing the underlying implementation. This process prevents the attacker from knowing what ciphertext bits are being processed inside the computer and therefore prevents the bit-by-bit analysis essential to the timing attack.

d. Protocol attacks: Protocol attacks exploit weaknesses in the way RSA is being used. Among the better known ones are the attacks that exploit the malleability of RSA.

Many of these attacks can be avoided by using padding. Padding a message within the RSA encryption scheme is done by first off generating a string PS of length kâˆ’|M|âˆ’2|H|âˆ’2 of zeroed bytes. The length of PS may be zero. Then Concatenate Hash(L), PS, a single byte with hexadecimal value 0x01, and the message M to form a data block DB of length kâˆ’|H|âˆ’1 bytes as DB = Hash(L)||PS||0x01||M. In addition generate a random byte string seed of length |H|. Let dbMask=MGF(seed,kâˆ’|H|âˆ’1), where MGF is the mask generation function. In practice, a hash function such as SHA-1 is often used as MFG. Let maskedDB =DBâŠ•dbMask.

Then let seedMask = MGF(maskedDB, |H|) and maskedSeed = seedâŠ•seedMask.

Concatenate a single byte with hexadecimal value 0x00, maskedSeed and maskedDB to form an encoded message EM of length k bytes as EM = 0x00||maskedSeed||maskedDB.

On the decryption side, the structure of the decrypted message has to be verified. For instance, if there is no byte with hexadecimal value 0x01 to separate PS from M, a decryption error occurred. In any case, returning a decryption error to the potential attacker should not reveal any information about the plaintext [5].

Conclusion

I have looked into the RSA algorithm which is a method for implementing public-key cryptosystems whose security rests in part on the difficulty of factoring large numbers. Looking through operations of the algorithm, possible attacks and the counter measures I can conclude by saying that it permits secure communications to be established without the use of couriers to carry keys, and it also permits one to sign digitized documents.