Allauddin vs Jalaluddin vs Mubarak Shah
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The first plans to build the Titanic started in 1907. Bruce Ismay, the director of the White Star Line, and William James Pirrie, the director of the ship-yard Harland and Wolff, decided to build three ships, named the Olympic-class. The ships would have to pass over the Atlantic Ocean with the speed of approximately 21 knots. The original design of the three ships was from William James Pirrie, but the definitive version came from three naval architects named Alexander Carlisle, Edward Wilding and Thomas Andrews.
The White Star Line built the ships, because they wanted to compete with another shipping company, the Cunard Line. The Cunard Line had two ships, the Lusitania and the Mauretania. These ships were the biggest ships of the world and the White Star Line wanted to exceed them. They had to come with bigger ships and the Olympic-class was the solution. The White Star Line could build the Titanic, because they were funded by the company of J.P. Morgan.
The first ship from the Olympic-class that was built was the Olympic. On the 31th of March 1909 on the ship-yard of Harland and Wolff in Belfast the construction of the Titanic began. Almost all the ships of the White Star Line were built on that ship-yard. On the 31th of May 1911 the Titanic was launched.
An important part of the Olympic-class was the luxury. A few of the cabins were furnished by the Dutch furnish company H.P. Mutters en zoon from The Hague.
The Titanic was a Royal Mail Ship (RMS), because the three ships of the Olympic-class were also used for transport overseas. When the Titanic sank the mail went down with it.
Construction of the Titanic
The construction of the Titanic began on 31 March in 1909. First some technical facts about the Titanic:
The Titanic was 269,04 metres long
The Titanic was 28,19 metres wide
The Titanic was 56 metres high
The Titanic was 10,54 deep
The Titanic weighed over 46,328 tons
It took the shipbuilders of Harland and Wolff approximately 26 months to build the Titanic. The process to build the Titanic was almost the same as the Olympic. The constructing of the Titanic started as a floating box with the keel as a backbone and the ship was formed by the ribs. The ship had a double bottom from 1.6 metres deep. There were 300 frames from approximately 20 metres long. They stopped at the bridge deck and were covered with steel plates. This formed the outer skin of the ship. The 2000 steel plates were 1.8 metres wide and 9.1 metres long. The plates were held together with over three million iron and steel rivets. They were hammered in by hand of fitted by using hydraulic machines.
During the construction of the Titanic, 246 injuries were recorded, 28 of them were severe and eight people died working on the ship and in the workshops. Constructing a ship was a difficult and dangerous job and safety precautions at the shipyard from Harland and Wolff were at minimum.
After the Titanic was launched on 31 May 1911 the ship was towed to a fitting-out berth. In the next year the Titanic got het engines, funnels and her interior.
The interior of the Titanic was divided into sixteen compartments and these compartments were divided by fifteen bulkheads. Eleven watertight doors could seal off the compartments if it was necessary. The interior of the Titanic was very simple. On top of the ship you had the Promenade and Boat Deck. They were both 150 metres long. Above the decks there were four funnels, but only three had a real function. The fourth funnel was a dummy and was only installed to make look the Titanic more impressive.
In an enclosure you can see the construction of the Titanic.
The Titanic on the shipyard of Harland and Wolff
Could the disaster be prevented or be less disastrous by acting differently from the captain or crew before, during or after the collision with the iceberg?
In this sub question I’m going to take a closer look to the deeds the crew made after the sailor in the crow’s nest saw the iceberg till the Carpathia picks up the survivors. I take a closer look to how the crew could have acted better, but also what the crew did good and saved human lives.
At 23:40 Frederick Fleet saw the iceberg appear right in front of the Titanic. He rang the alarm bell three times and he called the bridge to report the iceberg. First Officer Murdoch had seen the iceberg too and had ordered to that the ship had to be steered around the iceberg. The engines had to be put in reverse. But it was too late. The iceberg was to close.
Did first Officer Murdoch reacted well and was steering the ship around the iceberg a good idea? I don’t think so. The iceberg was to close and the Titanic was hit at the side. If four compartments were flooded the Titanic could stay floated, but five compartments were hit. If the crew had just stopped the engines en had put it in reverse and let the ship clash with the iceberg with the front of the ship. It would be a big collision, but only the front of the ship would be broken and maybe two or three compartments would be damaged. The ship could have stay floated for days and all the passengers could all have been saved.
This is just one of the theories about the way the Titanic hit the iceberg. First Officer Murdoch had only seconds to think about how to prevent the collision. He reacted fast and he must have thought that the Titanic could be steered around the iceberg. Sadly the iceberg was to close and the Titanic went to fast. http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/images/special/captain_smith_bridge_500.jpg
The moment the Titanic collided with the iceberg captain Smith was sleeping. He woke up and knew that something was wrong, so he walked to the bridge. One of the designers of the Titanic, Thomas Andrews, knew something was wrong too. He went to the bridge as well. He took the blueprints with him. When he heard which compartments were damaged he knew that the Titanic was sinking. Captain Smith gave order to prepare the lifeboats and he went to the wireless operators. He told them to send out the message “CQD”, the distress signal. He also ordered that everyone had to put on a life jacket. An hour after the collision the first lifeboat was launched. Captain Smith ordered that woman and children had to go first.
Captain Smith on the Olympic of Titanic
Captain Smith operated very well. He followed the regular procedure and made sure the passenger didn’t panic. The passengers were very calm and didn’t saw the seriousness from the collision. That worked adversely, because people didn’t want to put on a life jacket and didn’t want to go with the lifeboats. This took a lot of time and lives were spilled.
When all the lifeboats were gone the panic started. The crew couldn’t do anything anymore. A lot of them had already left the ship, because they needed to sail with the lifeboats. The Titanic went down and the passengers were left in the ice cold water. One boat went back, but they waited too long. It was smart that they didn’t go back immediately, because the people would have pulled the lifeboat over. He waited until the screaming almost stopped, but he had to sail back and that took longer than he thought. When he came to the place of disaster most of the people already died from hypothermia, cardiac arrest or drowning.
If he had gone back sooner more lives could have been saved. It is a misjudge that was fatal for a lot of people.
What happens from the moment the Titanic collides with the iceberg till the moment the Titanic hits the bottom of the ocean?
At 23:40 on the 14th of April Frederick Fleet sees the iceberg and a few minutes later the Titanic hits the iceberg. Five compartments were damaged and the water rises fast. The Titanic had waterproof bulkheads that went up till the water line. The bulkheads stopped at the boiler room and the engine room. The Titanic had also doors that divided the ship in twelve compartments. The problem was that only twelve of the thirty doors were automatic and could be closed with a push on a button on the bridge. The other eighteen doors had to be closed by hand.
Immediately after the collision the water floated into the Titanic and there originate a lot of pressure on the front side of the ship. At one o’clock the bulkhead between boiler room five and six breaks down from the huge pressure of the water. From this point the water flows even faster into the ship. At 01:45 the name ‘Titanic’ disappears under water and the water floats over the bow. At 02:05 the water reaches the promenade deck and a few minutes later the power goes down. At 02:10 the water in the prow causes the hull from the ship to start cracking. The prow from the Titanic is sinking deeper into the water. The stern gets lifted up into the air more and more. At 02:18 the stern makes an angle of 45 degrees and the Titanic breaks in half between the third and fourth chimney. The prow starts sinking to the bottom of the ocean. The stern of the Titanic falls back on the water. At 02:20 the stern starts filling up with water and stands upright in the water. Two hours and forty minutes after the collision with the iceberg the Titanic disappears into the Atlantic Ocean. The stern falls back on the water and the front side disappears under water.
The bow started sinking sooner than the stern of the Titanic. The bow lands six hundred meters of the central wreck side. The stern sunk spinning around its axis and felt down on the bottom of the ocean turned from the prow.
A Part of the simulation that David Cameron made with National Geographic about the sinking of the Titanic.
What kind of theories are there about the disaster with the Titanic?
When the Titanic was sinking the passengers were ordered to go to the boat deck. To make the passengers feel safe the band started playing on the boat deck. Led by Wallace Hartley they played songs to calm down the people. The band played till the Titanic sunk and all the eight bandsmen went down with the Titanic. The musicians are seen as heroes, because of their braveness that night.
Titanic’s popular and well-respected bandleader, Wallace Hartley, was no stranger to the oceans, or the big liners that crossed them, having previously bandleader on the rival Cunard line’s quadruple-funnelled sister ships Lusitania and Mauretania, but the lure of playing on the biggest and the most decedent ship in the world, and playing to the richest and most distinguished passengers on the North Atlantic run all helped to convince him that the change would be for the good, plus there was a pay rise to consider to.  Wallace and the other band members were travelling as second class passengers and weren’t seen as members of the crew of the Titanic. They worked for the company C.W. & F.N. Black from Liverpool and the White Star Line had hired them to play on the Titanic.
One of the mysteries of the Titanic is what song the band played when the Titanic sunk. The survivors of the disaster all tell different songs, like “Alexander’s Ragtime Band”, “In the Shadows” and “Song d’Automne’. The song “Nearer, My God, To Thee” is the most popular song. We have to accept that we will never know what song the band played. You also can ask yourself the question if it was even possible that the band played if you look at the way the Titanic went down. http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5340/6997894216_8abb320bd0_z.jpg
In the night the Titanic sunk all the eight band members lost their lives. Almost two weeks after the disaster, Wallace Hartley’s body was found in the Atlantic Ocean. His Body arrived in Liverpool on the 12th May and on the 18th May he was buried in Colne. On his funeral an orchestra played “Nearer, My God, To Thee”. The music is carved into his crave stone together with a violin. At the Philharmonic Hall in Liverpool the eight heroic band members have a tablet in their memorial.
The tablet in memorial of the band at the Philharmonic Hall in Liverpool.
The kidnapped children
Another remarkable story is the story about a father who kidnapped his children, Michel Marcel Navratil Jr. and Edmond Roger Navratil, and wanted to move to New York with them. At the night of the collision he brought his children to lifeboat D. He himself wasn’t allowed to go with them and two strange women took over the children. Later the oldest child remembered that he his father had said to him that their mother would take care of him. The father, Michel Navratil, died that night and his body was later found in the Atlantic Ocean. The mother of the children didn’t know her children were on the Titanic. After the arrival in New York no one claimed the children and the White Star Line took photos of them in order to find relatives. The photos of the children were spread and the mother of the children saw her children in the newspaper. She contacted the White Star Line and she sailed to New York on costs of the White Star Line. She went back with the children on the Oceanic and went home to France.
Michel Navratil Jr. was born on the June 12th in 1908. He died on the January 30th in 2001. He was the last male survivor of the disaster with the Titanic when he died. Edmond Navratil was born March 5th in 1910 and he died in 1953.
Michel Jr. and Edmond were the sons of a Slovak immigrant, Michel Navratil and their Italian mother, Marcelle Caretto. Their parents divorced in the beginning of 1912 and Marcelle got the custody of the children. Marcelle gave Michel permission to have the children with Easter and Michel took advantage of that. He decided to take the children to the United States and after a short stay in Monte Carlo he travelled to England and went on board of the Titanic. Michel Navratil Sr. travelled under the name of “Louis M. Hoffman” and he registered his sons as “Loto” and “Louis”. He told the other passengers he was a widower.
Michel Navratil lived a happy life after the disaster. He studied philosophy and married in 1933. He became a professor at the University of Montpellier. He claimed that his philosophical thinking was strongly influenced by the loss of his father and the disaster with the Titanic when he was so young. In 1996 he went back on a cruise to the place where the Titanic sunk and in the same year he visited his father’s grave. The last years of his life he lived in Montpellier and he died at the age of 92.
Edmond Navratil became an architect and interior designer and got married. During World War 2 he fought with the French Army. He was captured as a prisoner of war, but he escaped from the camp. After the war his health suffered and he died at the age of 43
Mr and Mrs Straus
“We have live together for many years. Where you go, I go.” Those are the famous words of Ida Straus. She gave up her life to die with her husband, Isidor Straus. He was the co-owner of the Macy’s department store. On the night of the sinking of the Titanic Mr and Mrs Straus were standing nearby lifeboat number 8. The officer in charge of the lifeboat asked if they wanted to come with, but Isidor Straus refused. He didn’t wanted to go as long there were women and children on the ship. He wanted that his wife entered the lifeboat, but she refused and spoke her famous words. Her words were witnessed by passengers who were already in lifeboat number 8 and other passengers who were also standing on the boat deck.
Ida and Isidor were last seen standing on the boat deck arm in arm. The body of Ida was never found and the body of Isidor is buried in the Bronx, New York City. On his gravestone stands a memorial for his wife.
Ida Straus was born as Rosalie Ida Blun on February 6th in 1849 in Worms, Germany. She immigrated to the United States together with her six brothers and sisters and parents. In 1871 she married Isidor Straus. Isidor Straus was born in Rhenish Bavari on February 6th 1845. He also immigrated to the United States with his family. He was a businessman and worked for several companies in his career. After the Civil War he moved to New York and in 1896 he became the owner of the Macy’s department store. Between 1895 and 1897 he served as a congressman for the New York State. Ida and Isidor Straus had seven children. http://blogs.rep-am.com/worth_reading/files/2012/04/idaisidor1.jpg
The story of Mr and Mrs Straus was told immediately after the RMS Carpathia arrived in New York City. Survivors told the reporters about the loyalty of Mrs Straus to her husband and that she sacrificed her life for him. Ida Straus died at the age of 63 and Isidor Straus at the age of 67 in the Atlantic Ocean.
Isidor and Ida Straus
What are the stories of the people who survived the disaster with the Titanic?
The unsinkable Molly Brown
Margaret “Molly” Brown was an American socialite who became famous after she survived the sinking of the Titanic and her brave attitude in lifeboat no. 6 to return to look for survivors. After her death she became famous as “The Unsinkable Molly Brown”.
Margaret Tobin was born in Hannibal, Missouri on the 18th July 1867. She had two brothers and one sister. Her parents had been widowed young. That is why she also had two half-sisters form the previous marriages of her parents. At the age of 18 she moved to Leadville, Colorado and started working in a department store. She met James Joseph Brown and married him in 1886. They had two children: Lawrence Palmer Brown and Catherine Ellen Brown.
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Margaret was a helpful woman. She helped in soup kitchens to help poor families and she helped to establish the “National American Suffrage Association” in Colorado. In 1894 the family Brown moved to Denver and Margaret became a member of the “Denver Woman’s Club”. The organisation had the mission to improve women’s lived by providing education and philanthropy. Margaret became a society lady and helped with the establishing the first juvenile court in the United States, helped poor children and did fund-raising.
Margaret was first class passenger on the Titanic. The night the Titanic sunk, Margaret helped other people to board the lifeboats and she left the Titanic in Lifeboat no. 6. After the Titanic disappeared in the ocean Margaret wanted the lifeboat to go back to safe people from the ice cold water. Robert Hichens, the crewman in charge of lifeboat no. 6, didn’t want to go back, because he was scared the people would swamp the boat.
After she survived the sinking of the Titanic she became well-known and she used her notoriety to help promote issues like: the right of workers and woman, education for children, the commemoration of the bravery by the men aboard the Titanic and many more. During World War 1 she helped wounded American and French soldiers and she worked with the American Committee for Devastated France to rebuild parts of France that were destroyed. She got an award for good citizenship during the war and her activism in America. When she was older, she became an actress. She died October 26th 1932 at the age of 65. She is buried next to James Joseph Brown in Westbury, New York.
Margaret “Molly” Brown is now seen as a heroine for helping with the evacuation and her efforts in lifeboat no. 6 to go back and search for survivors.
Margaret “Molly” Brown
The guard on the quarter-deck that men forgot to warn
George Thomas Rowe was a 32 year old man and at the night of the collision he had the guard on the quarter-deck. He had to measure the speed of the Titanic and give the information to the bridge and report it in a logbook. He also had the task to watch the surrounding, like a man overboard or something like that.
His shift started at eight o’clock till twelve. He stood alone on the deck and it was freezing. At ten o’clock he reported the speed to the bridge and everything went alright. But at the end of his shift he felt the ship shacking and he saw the iceberg. He looked down at the ship, but he couldn’t see any damage so he went back to his place and waited for his replacement. But the replacement never came and it became colder. An hour later he saw, to his great surprise, a life boat drifting by. He called the bridge to tell them about the life boat and then he heard that the Titanic was sinking.
The bridge asked him to go search for the torch lilies and he tried to make contact with the unknown ship. At 1:25 Captain Smith ordered him to take the command over lifeboat C and he left the Titanic. He survived the disaster with the Titanic.
Why did people write so much about the sinking of the Titanic, while many greater maritime disasters have taken place?
If you say Titanic everyone knows where you’re talking about. If you watch National Geographic on the 14th of April you’ll see all kind of documentary’s about the Titanic. Even after hundred years the sinking of the Titanic is a well-known disaster. Immediately in 1912 everyone was aware of what happened with the Titanic. Why did write so much about the sinking of the Titanic?
I think you can give lots of reasons why Titanic is a well-known maritime disaster. First of all Titanic was called ‘the unsinkable ship’. People thought that there was knowledge enough about the oceans and the ships that it was impossible. When the Titanic sunk it was a big shock.
The Titanic was the biggest moving object that was built by human hands in that time. The Titanic was considered as majestic, because of its greatness and its luxury from the first and second class. A lot of rich people went on the maiden voyage from the Titanic. It was the biggest passenger ship in that time and that made the Titanic special.
Another reason why the sinking of the Titanic is a well-known disaster is that more people could have survived if there were more lifeboats. A lot of the passenger died in the ice cold water and a small percentage survived. The lifeboats were crucial and there weren’t enough lifeboats to safe all the passengers.
The collision from the Titanic with the iceberg could have been prevented. Captain Smith was warned by other ships that there were a lot of ice bergs in the area, but wanted that the Titanic kept sailing with the same speed. Later people said that Bruce Ismay ordered Captain Smith to do that, because he wanted to set a new record. There were enough warnings for Captain Smith, but he ignored them. I think that this makes the sinking of the Titanic more tragic.
The sinking of the Titanic isn’t the biggest maritime disaster that took place, but it’s a really tragic one. A lot of movies have been made and a lot of books have been written about the sinking of the Titanic. We won’t forget the sinking of the Titanic.
What was built in Belfast to honour the Titanic?
Belfast is the place where the Titanic was built. To honour the Titanic there is an impressive building with a museum about the Titanic in it. The construction started in May 2009 and on 31th March 2012 the building opened its doors. The museum is a real Titanic Experience. The museum has nine galleries with special effects and full-scale reconstructions.
The building of Titanic Belfast is impressive. The unique architectural design was influenced by several maritime themes, including ice crystals, ships’ hulls and the insignia of the White Star Line.  Eric Kuhne and Mark Evans are the main architects, but they had help from Todd Architects. The ideas about the concept came from Anne Lucas and she had help from Kay Elliot Architects. They all made the building special from the inside, but also from the outside.
Titanic Foundation Limited is the owner from the building. In partnership with Belfast City Council, Belfast Harbour Commissioners, Northern Ireland Tourist Boars and Titanic Quarter Limited the building has been funded.
At Titanic Belfast you can start in Belfast with the construction of the Titanic and walk through all the steps the Titanic made.
In the early 20th Century, Belfast had the greatest boom in its history. Belfast was the global leader in engineering, ship-building and linen manufacturing. The shipyard from Harland and Wolff was the largest shipyard in the world. The exhibition will learn the visitors about the industries in Belfast and the innovations that led to design of the RMS Titanic
To enter the shipyard visitors will pass through the original Harland and Wolff shipyard gates to continue their journey. To build the Titanic, and the Olympic, the shipyard needed two new bigger slipways. These slipways were built during the second half of 1908, named the “Arrol Gantry”. To continue to the next step, visitors need to climb on a replica of one of the pillars of the Arrol Gantry. From there, they can go aboard of the Shipyard Ride, an electronic dark ride that used special effects, animations and full-scale reconstructions to recreate the reality of shipbuilding in the early 1900s. 
The launch of the Titanic
On the 1st of May 1911 the Titanic was launched with approximately 100.000 people on the side line. The Titanic Experience shows the visitors through a window with glass containing electrodes an enormous view down the actual slipways.
The RMS Titanic was the most elegant and luxurious ship in the world. The ship had the best food, furnishing and fittings. The gallery shows the visitors with help from models and exhibits the interior of the Titanic. It includes replicas of the first, second and third class cabins. You can walk through the dining areas and the ship’s engine rooms which includes the finest details.
Titanic left Belfast at 8pm on April 2nd 1912 and sailed to Southampton. In Southampton most of the passengers went aboard and the Titanic sailed to Cherbourg and Queenstown before setting sail across the Atlantic Ocean. In the gallery the visitors discover what life was actually like on board of the Titanic.
On April 14th at 11.40pm the Titanic hit an iceberg at almost full speed, which created a hole from 90 metre below the waterline. Two and a half hours later, the Titanic sank into the Atlantic Ocean. In this gallery the horror and heroism in the final hours of the Titanic are shown to the visitors with help from sound and lighting.
The sinking of the Titanic was investigated by the land which built the ship, Great Britain, and the land that owned the ship, America. The investigators examined how and why the disaster happened and searched for someone to blame. In the gallery all the information from the investigators and the reporters are brought together.
Myths and Legends
This gallery shows the visitors the stories, legends, fantasies and media reports that originated around the Titanic with help from interactive touch screens.
The Titanic Experience also had as gallery where you can visit and explore the wreck of the Titanic. Dr. Robert Ballard described the wreck September 9th, 1985 like this:
”The Titanic lies now in 13,000 feet of water on a gently sloping Alpine-looking countryside overlooking a small canyon below. Its bow faces north and the ship sits upright on its bottom with its mighty stacks pointed upward. There is no light at this great depth and little life can be found. It is a quiet and peaceful place – and a fitting place for the remains of this greatest of sea tragedies to rest. Forever may it remain that way. And may God bless these now-found souls.” 
In 1985, Dr. Robert Ballard and Jean-Louis Michel discovered the place where the Titanic landed on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Dr. Robert Ballard is an American oceanographer and Jean-Louis Michel a French diving engineer. They found the Titanic four kilometres below sea level. The gallery “Titanic Beneath” shows the visitors the footage of the wreckage of Dr. Ballard himself and the visitor can explore every detail of the Titanic on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.
What kind of plan has the Australian millionaire, Clive Palmer, to build a replica of the Titanic?
We already know that a lot of people are fascinated about the Titanic. Clive Palmer is a business man, made billions of money and is fascinated about the Titanic too. In April 2012 this year he announced his plans to build a replica of the Titanic.
#29 Clive Palmer
Clive Palmer was born the 26th March in 1954 in Williamstown, Australia. He currently lives on the Sovereign Islands on the Gold Coast, Australia. He is married and has three children. He is the owner of “Mineralogy”, a company that has been engaged for over 20 years in the exploration and development of mineral resources.  Clive Palmer bought several companies: Waratah Coal in 2008, Queensland Nickel and Palmer Nickel and Cobalt Refinery in 2009. He also bought the football club “Gold Coast Unites” in 2008.
Clive Palmer is not only a business man, but he is concerned with politics too. He was the spokesman of the National Party of Australia during the state selection in 1986. In November 2012 he announced that he was considering starting a new political party “United Australia Party”, because he was resigned from the Liberal National Party. Clive Palmer owns luxury resorts on the Sunshine Coast and Port Douglas Queensland too. He also does charity work and on the 4th of March he was named as a “National Living Treasure” by the New South Wales Branch of the National Trust of Australia.
In January 2012 Clive Palmer was the 29th on the list of Australia’s 40 Richest.
Titanic II will be a replica of the RMS Titanic. Clive Palmer said he wants the ship to be as similar to the original Titanic in design and specifications, but with modern technology. The ship will be built in China by CSC Jinling Shipyard. “It will be every bit as luxurious as the original Titanic but of course it will have state-of-the-art 21st Century technology and the latest navigation and safety systems,” he said in a statement. 
In late 2016 the ship has to cross the Atlantic Ocean just like the Titanic. Titanic II will sail to Southampton where it will start its maiden voyage to New York.
Building a replica of the Titanic is a new investment for Clive Palmer and he plans to build a fleet of luxury liners. He drew a lot of attention to himself with announcing his plans to build a replica of the well-known RMS Titanic. A lot of people are interested to sail on the Titanic II on its maiden voyage and there are a lot of bookings. Clive Palmer asked Jame
sed in Delhi, India. Throughout the 320(1206 AD-1526 AD) years it held power, 5 ma
When looking at the issue of who was responsible for the cold war, we have to look at what the relationship between the United States and USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was like before the start of World War Two. By the end of the nineteenth century Marxism in Western Europe was becoming more and more national. The imperial implications of both Marxist thought and Russian history provide the broad background and context for understanding soviet involvement in cold war. “The soviet worldwide had been shaped by a history that was dramatically different from that of the west  “. For example the Bolshevik revolution, the civil war, and the experience of World War two all contributed to a unique soviet perspective. Furthermore after the revolution of 1917, soviet Russia assumed the responsibility of spreading the Marxist message. “Stalin seen himself as the keeper of the Marxist faith, it would emancipate mankind”  . In addition historians such as Zubok and Constantine suggest that history gave the Russians the reason to see themselves as saviours of the world. Due to the events that occurred before the Cold War we can see this. Furthermore historians believed that “each of them would make his own intricate cold war journey, guided by the two misleading suns of empire and revolution”.
Many historians believe that it was because, the United States and USSR ideologies were so different and believed that to be the underlying cause for their fear of one another. For example Russia was communist which put the needs of the state ahead of personal human rights and was ruled by a dictator. The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and believed that communism was something to fear. Americans saw themselves as champions of the free world, and tyrants such as Stalin represented everything the United States opposed. At the same time, the Soviets, who believed that capitalism exploited the masses, saw the United States as the oppressor. To emphasise the difference between the two nations we can see this by looking at their visions of the world. For example Stalin saw the world as divided into two camps: imperialist and capitalist regimes on the one hand, and the Communist and progressive world on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman also spoke of two diametrically opposed systems: one free and the other bent on subjugating other nations. Although World War Two was meant to be the ” War to end all wars” it was not, the repercussions and the aftermath of what the war had caused, it just lead to a more apprehensive atmosphere all over the world, and as we can see this was defiantly the case when considering the relationship between the US and USSR. Although relations went on a downward spiral after World War Two it was not always this way, they were once allies during World War Two. However things changed after WW2, once the threat of Hitler was over, they became fearful of each other, Russia’s hatred for capitalism deepened when they was not rewarded for their efforts during World War Two, instead they became focused back on by the world that they was the threat the “red scare” began to intensify. Moreover historians have suggested that because of the enormous sacrifice of the Russian people in the Second World War, had led to the soviet leaders to believe that the allies owed them a great deal. The “cold war emerged from the ruins of world war two”  Stalin expected to be rewarded for their contribution in the war especially when Russia lost 27 million people. His primary task was to regain the territories lost to Russia during the war and revolution from 1915 to 1921: the Baltic’s, Finland, Poland, and Bessarabia. This goal was virtually fulfilled by the end of 1945.
The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and conflict short of full-scale war. It was characterized by mutual perceptions of hostile intention between military-political alliances or blocs, both systems believed that they were doing the right thing. The events that happened before and after World War two had an irreversible impact on how both of these countries perceived one another.
Furthermore Stalin’s foreign policies contributed an enormous amount to the tensions of the Cold War. His aim, was to take advantage of the military situation in post-war Europe to strengthen Russian influence, this was perceived to be a threat to the US and everything they stood for. Stalin was highly effective in his goal to gain territory, with victories for example in Poland and Romania. To the western world, this success looked as if it were the beginning of a series of Russian aggressions. The aggressive expansion in Eastern Europe was one of the main reasons for the cause of the cold war. Therefore it can be questioned that if the Soviets had not adopted the expansionist policy, then the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan may not have been initiated to keep Stalin and his spread of communism at bay.
Furthermore Stalin’s own persona could be seen as another cause for the cold war, for example when Ivan Maisky and Maxim Litvinov were appointed in 1943. Maisky wrote that the main soviet goal after the war would be to ensure a durable peace enough for the USSR “to become so powerful” that “no combination of powers in Europe or in Asia could even think of threatening her”  . This suggest that even though Russia had not got the rewards they was expecting from World War two and the contribution of the west in the civil war in 1918 all contributed to Stalin’s view on spreading Communism and being strong enough to not be threatened or have a fear of being invaded by any other country. In addition Stalin’s actions to wanting to spread communism throughout the world, lead to policies such as the china policy which historian Odd Arne Westad came to the conclusion that “Joseph Stalin china policy in the fall of 1945 was as aimless and incoherent as his European policy. However much he hoped to avoid post war confrontation with the United States, Stalin could… not make his mind how to achieve this aim.”  This view gives important insight into the impact of Stalin’s persona on the origins of the cold war. In addition Historians have also wondered whether another cause for the cold war was Stalin’s poor diplomacy. For example the diplomatic pressure he put on turkey caused him great problems with the west and later in 1948 his attempt his attempt to remove Tito in Yugoslavia by means of “communist democracy” backfired and only weakened their position. The errors Stalin made and the policies he created showed him to be aggressive and wanting to expand USSR’S borders spreading they way of communism. This ultimately created more of a hysteria and fear in US, therefore being a main contributor to the cause of the Cold War.
In addition when the Western democracies and the Soviet Union met up to discuss World War II, and the nature of the post-war settlement at conferences in Tehran 1943, Yalta February 1945, and Potsdam July-August 1945. At these conferences the Soviets agreed to allow the nations of Eastern Europe to choose their own governments in free elections. Stalin agreed to the condition only because he believed that these newly liberated nations would see the Soviet Union as their savoir and create their own Communist governments. When they failed to do so, Stalin violated the agreement by wiping out all opposition to communism in these nations and setting up his own governments in Eastern Europe, causing the situation to intensify. To make the situation worse, Stalin deepened the estrangement between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an unavoidable and inevitable consequence of “capitalist imperialism” and implied that such a war might reoccur. This resulted in an increase in world spread fear of communism due to Stain basically going towards the thought of another World war, which could have lead to a nuclear war. In addition many of the tensions that existed in the Cold War can be attributed to Stalin’s policy of Soviet expansion. It is necessary to consider that the role of Stalin can be seen as a catalyst to the Cold War
Furthermore the situation involving Poland was that Poland had always been the key state needed from which to launch an attack against Russia. He also wanted Poland to have a pro-Soviet government. Therefore after some time, he set up a communist government in Poland. He said that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks to the west it appeared to them that Russia’s attitude went against all of the promises that Stalin had made at Yalta mainly that Stalin would permit free elections in the eastern European states. Russia argued that it needed to maintain a sphere of influence in the area for security reasons. This caused further anxiety over Stalin’s policy of expansion. This then lead to the West to introduce the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, both of which sought to arrest the spread of communism.
The initiation of the Marshall plan for European recovery, however from Stalin’s point of view the marshal plan was a large scale attempt by the United States to gain lasting influence in Europe. The marshell plan was a serious challenge to Stalin vision of a future Europe as well as to German- soviet relations. Thus he had to protect his borders but by doing so it caused him to look like an aggressive bully towards countries that would not follow his lead. For example when leadership of Czechoslovakia hesitated before ending their participation in the Marshall plan it outraged Stalin, he told Czechoslovakia immediately to cancel the plans to receive aid from the US, Gottwald (leader of Czechoslovakia) complied. This just shows the intimidation Stalin was willing to put other nations through to keep them communist and not wade to the side of the US. The nations that complied with Stalin and agreed not to participate in the Marshall plan, their economies deteriorated, while those of the western European states began to recover and see improvement in their economies. To Stalin this was a challenge of his authority in Eastern Europe, therefore his next actions was to focus on Czechoslovakia, the communist group in Prague carried out a coup in February of 1948. Shortly after the coup the Czech president was replaced by the leader of the Czech communist party, Gottwald. Furthermore it was incidents like these that caused outrage in the western world, the intimidation of another country to not take a chance that could help their economy, to stop them countries from distracting from the way of communism rather than capitalism. Thus if Russia had not behaved and acted this way due to their expansion policy , it may not have ever got out of control and there would have been no need to implement the Marshall plan which lead to the implementation of the Truman Doctrine.
To further America’s fear of communism, due to their aggressive foreign policy, between 1943-46 most western European Communist parties were at a peak in the years immediately following World War Two. The French Communist Party, for example, won almost 30% of the vote in 1946 elections. Greece was in crisis they were at the brink of civil war which finally occurred in 1946 after the Greek communists tried to seize power in 1944 due to a rise in communist leg guerrillas. This resulted in an economic crisis which at the time was being supported by Britain however this was no longer possible. Therefore America stepped in because they feared that the people would look more towards communism through desperation. This then resulted in the introduction of the Truman Doctrine in March, 1947. The Truman doctrine announced that was to be given to Greece and Turkey in the stated context of a general war against communism. The US gives $400 million as aid to help Greece in their economic crisis. However it can be said that in many ways, the Truman Doctrine marked the formal declaration of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union .It also solidified the United States’ position regarding containment. However, even though this suggests that US started the war, but if Russia had not been aggressively expanding their empire and spreading communism then it would not have caused the US to intervene and introduce the Truman doctrine due to their fear of communism.
By 1946, the United States and Britain were making every effort to unify all of Germany under western rule. The Soviet Union responded by consolidating its grip on Europe by creating satellite states in 1946 and 1947. One by one, communist governments, loyal to Moscow, were set up in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. Stalin used Soviet communism to dominate half of Europe. This created more of a mistrust in the USSR and the US relations resulting in the build up to the Cold War, and evidently showing that the roots of the problem was the Russia’s expansion policy.
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In relation to the previous point made to show Russia’s expansion during the time leading up to the Cold war, we have to look at Winston Churchill “Iron Curtain”. Churchill said that “From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe -Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia.”  Therefore showing the scale of how fast Russia was expanding through Eastern Europe. It also emphasis the split between Russia and the US creating more of an estranged relationship between the two super powers, because it is showing the spread of communism and how quick it was occurring. The United States feared the most was the ” Red Scare “which was becoming more serious with each invasion of the countries within Eastern Europe.
Stalin also set up the Berlin Blockade with the idea that he could push western power out of Eastern Berlin, which only escalated the situation. “The cold War was the brave and essential response of free men to Communist aggression.”  Schlesinger believes that the soviets were wrong and that the USA was trying to stop the USSR from going any further. Another view is T.A. Bailey who also believed that the Soviets were to blame; he thinks that they always had one more plan for world domination up their sleeves.
In addition further actions took by Stalin which was contributing to the end result in being the cold war, was the Berlin Blockade on the 24th June 1948. Stalin decided to blockade West Berlin by cutting off road and rail links. To break the blockade armed forces would have to smash the blockade, however this would be seen as an act of war which Stalin new US wouldn’t do. He believed they would abandon their zones and leave the whole of Berlin in soviet hands. However Stalin failed to gain control of Berlin. Although he failed in this case, it still antagonised America causing them to retaliate. Therefore due to Stalin wanting to gain a foot hold in Europe and to keep aggressively expanding. This shows that each action Stalin made were all catalysts in causing the Cold War.
In addition the relationship between Russia and the US escalated further to the extent were another proxy war was occurring, which was the Korean War (1950- 1953). The Korean War was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and People’s Republic of China (PRC), with air support from the Soviet Union. The war began on 25 June 1950 it was a result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War. In 1945, following the surrender of Japan, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States troops, occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part. It was soviets foreign policy that lead to them being involved in the Korean War however it was China who physically participated in the war, where as Russia was acting behind the scenes to not actually cause a physical war between them and the US. By being involved in the war it just caused the US to be more wary of Russia and showed how much influence and power the USSR had gained to have that “control” over China and other countries that were also communist.
After looking at the events leading up to the cold war, the short term and long term causes when focusing on the US perspective we see that their view was flawed because they feared what they did not understand, they did not understand how a country could be ran under a communist government and still work, especially when the US system was capitalist. The US’s response was based on their misunderstanding and fear of USSR which was more commonly known as the red scare. For example the US and Britain believed that just before WW2 they seen the USSR as more of a threat than Hitler at that time.
Overall some historians such as the Traditionalist believed that Russia was to blame for the Cold War. They believed that the Soviet-led governments sought to overthrow existing capitalist governments, which can be reinforced by the fact that Russia’s foreign policy was aggressive expansion. In addition the US and its allies were merely responding to the threats of the Soviet Union, as we can see by the Truman doctrine. I agree with traditionalist’s idea due to the fact that Stalin and his successors were convinced that the legitimacy of their rule depended on validating Marxist-Leninist predictions of world revolution. If they believed that they would only succeed when these predictions were completed then they were to blame for the cold war. Russia actions of aggressive expansion throughout Eastern Europe support this.
jor dynasties ruled over it: The Mamluk Dynasty(1206-90), The Khilji Dynasty(1290-1320), the Tughlaq Dynasty(1320-1414), The Sayyid Dynasty(1414-1451), and the Lodi Dynasty(1451-1526). The strongest and most stable dynasty was the Khilji Dynasty, and its best ruler was Alauddin Muhammad Khilji. Alauddin Khilji was said to be the most ruthless ruler of the dynasty and had the longest rule over the Sultanate for over 2 decades (1296-1316),  and he desired to become like Alexander the Great, and rule over a world wide empire. 3 Alauddin Khilji was born as Ali Gurshap in Afghanistan, was the nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji, the founder of the Khilji dynasty and the first Sultan of the dynasty. He desired to overthrow Jalaluddin, and killed him in a ploy to take over the Sultanate. While some of these actions may shine Alauddin in a ruthless light, he was the most powerful leader of the Khilji Dynasty and achieved feats that weren’t accomplished by his predecessor, Jalaluddin, or his successor, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah.
I believe that the sentence that I highlighted in yellow is your thesis. I like that you are setting him up as a ruthless ruler, but one who accomplished a lot of things. The problem is that you haven’t set out what exactly these feats were (military, social, economic?). Your thesis needed to summarize what you’ll discuss in this essay. Regarding the rest of your introduction, thank you for including some dates to help situate the reader in time. You provided some thoughtful contextual information.
Jalaluddin Khilji was the 11th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate and the founder of the Khilji Dynasty. The topic sentence I have highlighted is purely narrative in form, i.e. it just states a fact rather than posing some interpretation of his rule. The sentence I highlighted and commented on below is much more representative of what a topic sentence should look like. Before becoming the Sultan he was the chief of bodyguards for the Mamluk Dynasty that preceded the Khiljis. Jalaluddin was around 70 years old when he rose to power by executing the previous Sultan, and took the throne for himself. He reigned for 6 years (1290-96), and in that short time managed to suppress revolts against his rule, inhibit incoming Mongols, and attempted to expand the Sultanate. In the first year of Jalaluddin’s rule, the nephew of the previous leader of the Sultanate, Malik Chajju, attempted to overthrow him and take the title of Sultan. He was supported by many older nobles who supported the Mamluk Dynasty and Hindu chiefs that wanted more power who believe Jalaluddin as a weak ruler. Chajju assembled an army to march to Delhi, but the sultanate’s forces managed to defeat them with ease and Chajju fled from the scene. He was later handed over to Jalaluddin and was punished for his crimes. Not long after Chajju’s failed coup, a mongol force was sent to attack a province of the Sultanate, and were met by the Sultan on the battlefield. In the end, the Sultanate was victorious and while most mongols retreated, Jalaluddin allowed mongols who had converted to Islam a haven in India. Jalaluddin’s next course of action was to capture the Chahamana Kingdom southwest of Delhi. He managed to capture the fortress of Mandawar and the town of Jhain with great ease. The courtier of that time, Amir Khusrau, wrote that thousands of defenders were slain in the siege, while only one Turkic soldier of the Sultanate lost his life. While these claims might be exaggerated, the message showing the might of the Sultanate was clear. Though, Jalaluddin was forced to retreat from Ranthambore, the capital of the Kingdom, due to the inability to scale the steep hill the fort was situated on, and decided that too many of his people would die before he would capture it, and retreated from the area. In 1296, Jalaluddin got news that his nephew, Ali Gurshap, had captured and looted Devagiri, the capital of the wealthy Yadava Kingdom, and went to the town under his control, Kara, in order to asses the loot and bring it back to Delhi. This was, in fact, a ploy so that Ali could kill Jalaluddin and become the Sultan himself. Ali was successful with his plan and assassinated Jalaluddin,  and according to sources at the time, speared his head and carried it with him to Delhi. 
Ali Gurshup ascended the throne in July of 1296, and was named Allauddin Khilji, the second Sultan of the Khilji Dynasty. In the earlier years of his rule, Allauddin was plagued with invasions led by the Mongols to invade Delhi. The first time they attacked was in 1297 in Punjab, and they were soundly defeated by Alauddin’s brother Ulugh Khan. According to a poet at the time, Amir Khusro, more than 20,000 mongols were killed in battle. The year after, in 1298, another army was sent to Sindh, present day Pakistan, and this force was once again defeated by the general of the Sultanate army, Zafar Khan. It was at this time when Allauddin learned about the greek emperor, Alexander the Great, and desired to rule over his own world wide Empire. In 1299, he sent his armies to invade present day Gujrat, and they captured the Veghala Kingdom with ease, and Allauddin started his plan to take over India.12 He was interrupted however, by another invading mongol force, who were defeated by the Sultan himself at the Battle of Kili.  Allauddin’s next triumph was at Ranthambore, which even Jalaluddin failed to capture. The Sultan himself led the siege against the fort at managed to capture it within a few months. In the pursuing years, Allauddin captured Warangal, the capital of the Kakatiya Kingdom, and Chittor, the capital of the Guhlia Kingdom, but while he was laying siege to the fortress of Chittor,  the Mongols managed to invaded Delhi and ransack the city and its neighboring towns before Alauddin had the chance to attack. This defeat against the Mongols was the most serious defeat the Sultanate took, and led to many reforms being made. After the invasion, only two more attempts of invading India while Allauddin was Sultan occured, the Battle of Amroha in 1305, and the Battle of Ravi in 1306, both of which resulted in victory for the Sultanate.  Over the course of the next seven years, Allauddin led many successful invasions, mostly focused on the kingdoms of Southern India. His army captured the Siwana fort in Marwar, the fort of Jalore, the Hoysala Kingdom, and the Pandya Kingdom.  Raiding all of these massive kingdoms brought great wealth to the Sultanate, and made it so Allauddin was the first person to conquer so much of India in such a short amount of time. I am very glad you included this sentence at the end which provided an interpretation of his prowess as a conqueror. You’re doing a nice job of describing what he did and when, but to bring this discussion to the next level, you need to provide more interpretations of his actions.
While Allauddin was a force to be reckoned with on the battlefield, he was also an extraordinary reformer. He was responsible for many changes in the Sultanate, some of which are still used today. When his army was returning after the invasion of Gujrat, a mutiny occured, led by the Muslim Mongols, and was suppressed by the commanders. In response to this blatant disobedience, Allauddin brutally punished the families of the soldiers involved, and according to the chronicler of the time, Ziauddin Barani, this practice started in Delhi.  This was not the only time Allauddin’s soldiers would rebel against him, as during the invasion of Ranthambore, it is said that Allauddin had to put down 3 different coups. As a result of this, Allauddin created his personal intelligence and surveillance system, banned the nobles in his court from intermingling, and took away wealth from the people. These actions allowed him to prevent uprising against him from occurring. Allauddin even managed to set up a tax system that was used for centuries after his death. He implemented the Jizya, a tax on non-muslims, Ghari, a tax on any houses, and Charai, a tax on agricultural fields and the grazing of animals. He banned all intoxication at the time, including alcohol and cannabis, due to the belief that if people were intoxicated, thoughts of rebellion might enter their head. All of these reforms allowed Allauddin to remain in power for 2 decades, and in his last days, Alauddin became ill and died in 1316. According to Barani, some people believed his viceroy and commander, Malik Kafur, killed him and appointed his son, Shihabuddin, as the new Sultan. Shihabuddin was murdered within a few days by his elder brother, Mubarak Khan, who took over the Sultanate as the third Sultan.
Mubarak Shah aka Mubarak Khan (and after becoming Sultan, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah), was a son of Alauddin Khilji. After Allauddin’s death in 1316, Mubarak’s younger brother, Shihabuddin Omar, was crowned the next Sultan, while Mubarak became his regent. A few weeks after the coronation, Mubarak accused Shihabuddin and his mother for poisoning him, and had them both imprisoned and killed. Thereafter, Mubarak took over the Sultanate, becoming its 3rd Sultan.  Mubarak was not very popular amongst the people of the Sultanate, and in order to gain their support, he abolished many of Allauddin’s policies which helped him remain in power. He freed multiple prisoners that Allauddin had held captive, returned private lands the Sultanate had taken over to their former owners, and lenientized the prohibition of intoxication. Mubarak was unable to expand the Sultanate anymore, but he managed to suppress multiple revolutions against the Sultanate. He stifled an uprising in Gujarat, recaptured the Yadava Capital, Devagiri, and besieged the capital of the Kakatiya Kingdom, Warangal once again.
Taking all of the Sultan’s accomplishments into account, I believe that Alauddin Khilji was by far the most powerful, successful, and greatest ruler of the Khilji Dynasty. While each of sultans of the Khilji Dynasty played a part for the Sultanate, Alauddin did more for it than the others. Jalaluddin Khilji was the first Sultan in the dynasty,4 and when he took over power, he needed to establish that his rule was law, and he did so by repressing the coup led by Malik Chajju. Once he had reinforced his power within the Sultanate, he attempted to expand the Sultanate throughout India, conquering much of the Chahamana Kingdom. When Alauddin took power by killing Jalaluddin, he did many things for the sultanate. He conquered most of India and at the same time held back the Mongols from invading India. He also set up tax systems that brought revenue to the Sultanate, and abolished substances that would interfere with the people’s heads. Mubarak Shah on the other hand tried to stay in power by abolishing many of the reforms made by the previous Sultans, and appealed to the people. Mubarak was the least successful in his rule, only reigning 4 years before he was killed, and Jalaluddin reigned for 6 years before he was killed. Allauddin managed to retain his rule for some more than 2 decades and reigned with very little defeats and uprising against him.
There should be no numbers.
Sources should be alphabetized.
I have questions about whether sources are print or online.
- Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Delhi Sultanate.” Encyclopædia Britannica. April 25, 2019. Accessed May 14, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/place/Delhi-sultanate.
- Habib, Mohammad, and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India. Delhi: People’s Pub. House, 1992. Online source? Needs weblink.
- Srivastava, Ashirbadi Lal. The Sultanate of Delhi. Agra: Agarwala, 1959. Online source? Needs weblink.
- Lal, Kishori Saran. History of the Khaljis, 1290-1320. Bombay: Asia Pub. House, 1967. Online source? Needs weblink.
- “Ala-ud-din Muhammad Khalji.” Middle Ages Reference Library, edited by Judy Galens and Judson Knight, vol. 2: Vol. 1: Biographies, UXL, 2001, pp. 9-14. World History in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3426200038/WHIC?u=mlin_m_bucking&sid=WHIC&xid=9c3422e2 . Accessed 21 May 2019.
- PHI Persian Literature in Translation. Accessed May 21, 2019. http://persian.packhum.org/main?url=pf?file=80201013&ct=18.
 Habib, Mohammad, and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India. Delhi: People’s Pub. House, 1992. Page 326. Should be Muhammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, A Comprehensive History of India (Delhi: People Pub. House, 1992), 326. Is this a print source or did you find it online? I asked you this on your rough draft. Right now, it looks like a print source.
 ”Ala-ud-din Muhammad Khalji.” Middle Ages Reference Library, edited by Judy Galens and Judson Knight, vol. 2: Vol. 1: Biographies, UXL, 2001, pp. 9-14. World History in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3426200038/WHIC?u=mlin_m_bucking&sid=WHIC&xid=9c3422e2. Accessed 21 May 2019.
 Srivastava, Ashirbadi Lal. The Sultanate of Delhi. Agra: Agarwala, 1959. Print source? Page number? Weblink? Incorrect format for footnote citation.
 Habib., 313.
 Ibid., 317.
 Ibid., 318.
 Ibid., 319.
 Ibid., 323.
 Srivastava., 145.
 PHI Persian Literature in Translation. Accessed May 21, 2019. http://persian.packhum.org/main?url=pf?file=80201013&ct=18. needed title of source and specific weblink. this does not specific which document you used.
 Jackson, Peter. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Page 221. Same formatting issues. Is this a paper source?
 Jackson., 220.
 Habib., 334-335.
 Ibid., 338.
 Ibid.. 342-352.
 Ibid., 366.
 Ibid., 368.
 Ibid., 392.
 Jackson., 229.
 Habib., 396.
 Ibid., 411-417.
 Ibid 335. Actually on page 336.
 Ibid., 350-352.
 Jackson., 243.
 Lal, Kishori Saran. History of the Khaljis, 1290-1320. Bombay: Asia Pub. House, 1967. Same formatting issues. Print or online source? Page number?
 Habib., 425.
 Ibid., 426.
 Ibid., 428.
 Ibid., 429.
 Lal., 327.
 Habib., 434.
 Ibid., 436.