Innovation of the latest technologies has changed the perspective of the business organizations. The production system and manufacturing department of Toyota uses an integrated technical system (Antony, 2007). This facility of Toyota is the combination of logistics manufacturers and interaction with the customers and suppliers. Presently, the world has become highly competitive and changing, which is one of the main reasons that the current quality served by the Toyota.
According to the journal article given by Ali Uyar, understanding of quality initiative and quality improvement is significant for the business organizations. The author has researched in this article that quality initiatives are directly proportional to the financial performance of the company (Uyar, 2008). The use of these quality initiatives will result in continuous efforts to decrease the variations in process outputs. The business processes can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled with it.
For achieving sustained quality improvement, it is required that the entire organization is committed, especially the top management (Morris, 2008). Presently, Toyota production system uses various concepts and quality initiatives such as “jidoka”, just in time, lean manufacturing, etc. Now the standard of the quality has become changed and these concepts need improvement. The quality initiatives are significant for Toyota because it increases the ability of Toyota Production System and Manufacturing Facilities.
These initiatives refer the quality programs, certification, awards, tools and methodologies, etc., to improve the quality of the organization. Studying quality initiative and quality improvement is essential for the production system of Toyota to serve high quality automobiles to the customers (Tennant, 2001).
The ability of highly capable processes to produce output within specification refers to “six-sigma”. Processes that use the six-sigma quality, produce at defect levels less than 3.4 defects per (one) million opportunities (DPMO) (Six-sigma – What is Six-sigma, 2008). The word sigma means a numerical term that evaluates how far a given process deviates from perfection. Six-Sigma technology basically focuses on systematically improving processes by eliminating defects. It uses statistical processes to manage the quality of the processes (Antony, 2007). The wide-spread applications of six-sigma are fully enjoyed by many sectors of industry and this would also assist Toyota to solve the current problem of quality and strong relationship with the customers.
Importance of Six-Sigma Quality Initiative
Six-Sigma projects carried out within an organization follow a defined sequence of steps and have quantified financial targets. In present era, the competitive environment leaves no room for error (Antony, 2004). Organizations persistently look for new ways to exceed the expectation of the customers. This is why Six-sigma Quality has turned into a part of organizational culture. The central idea behind implementation of Six Sigma is to determine how many defects are there in a process, so that they can be systematically figured out, eliminated and there are zero defects (Tennant, 2001). Toyota is one of the biggest companies in manufacturing industry. The basic objectives of Six-Sigma is to improve customer satisfaction, reduce the cycle time and reducing the defects (Pande & Holpp, 2001).
The administration team of the company applies the methodology of six-sigma with the integration of project execution methodology, which helps the company to satisfy the needs of the customer with the alignment of the various business operations (Morris, 2008). In the life cycle of software development, the model of six-sigma is also proposed by the company to convey inflexibility in the processes of effective up-stream. The implementation of this concept also helps to understand the quantitative value, productivity improvement, cost saving technique, etc. (Antony, 2004).
Six-Sigma is an instrument that has been used by various large and profitable companies to run their business better. It was actually developed to aid companies in reducing waste (Antony, 2007). Six-Sigma helps the companies from various problems. In present scenario, the concept of six-sigma has been applied in every department. For example: it has been successfully used on production, sales, marketing, design, administration and service. It is used to eradicate company defects through the use of business, statistic and engineering principles (Rene, 2007).
To work effectively and efficiently, Toyota needs to adopt the concepts of six-sigma. If the employees of the Toyota are willing to learn the concept and would apply it skillfully to their jobs, there will be a reduction of cost by 50% or more (Hunt, 2008). Six- Sigma helps to understand the need of customer’s needs better and more efficiently. It improves performance and makes internal improvements. Six-Sigma is a tool which all the business companies should learn to keep ahead the game. Because of its high success rate, many people are learning about Six- Sigma and putting it to use in their companies. Many companies hire a six-sigma master to adapt the changes (Tennant, 2001). It will take a company-wide acceptance and readiness to implement the new and exciting plan.
The study of six-sigma as a quality initiative is important because it enhances the operation as well as financial performance of the business organizations (Morris, 2008). The functional benefits of implementing Six-Sigma includes the employee satisfaction due to the improvement in work-flow, reduction in process times and steps, better usage of work space, etc. The major operational reason for choosing Six-sigma by the organization is its success in waste reduction and redundancy (What is Six-sigma? 2008).
In general, waste reduction is measured in terms of improving time, product movement and decreasing the consumption of material. The benefits of the implementation of six-sigma emerge from breaking the mindset that product processes are invariable (Rene, 2007). Benefits also emerge as a result of interconnected activities. The result of methodical approach to quality management in Six-Sigma is evidenced by reduced fluctuations in business processes. Stability triggers a series of positive chain reactions within organizations (Morris, 2008).
The cash flow of the company increases due to the creation of additional revenue. With the help of this process, although cost decreases and increases, profitability can be seen. For this, it is important that all the professionals involved in Six-sigma implementation should be given proper Six-sigma training (What is Six-sigma? 2008). Although Six-sigma training is relatively expensive, the financial benefits of supporting it sometimes outweigh the upfront costs.
Relevance of Six-sigma in Today’s World
In the beginning, the scope of six-sigma was limited towards the manufacturing environments in last decades. However, in present time, it has spread into every industry and every functional area. Six-sigma programs are spread across a growing number of functional areas like manufacturing, engineering, administration, purchasing, sales/marketing and research/development (Antony, 2007).
In today’s world, the six-sigma quality initiative concentrates on various concepts such as attributes of the products that are most important to the customers, shortcoming, failing of production system, fluctuation, capacity, etc. (Ramberg, 2000). The objective of Six-sigma is to key out and get rid of the causes of defects and errors in manufacturing and business processes, which is also one of the main objective of Toyota to improve the quality standard and relationship with customers as well as suppliers (Tennant, 2001). Six-Sigma uses a set of quality management tools like statistical methods. It helps in creating a special substructure a base of the people within the organization who are experts in these methods (Ramberg, 2000).
The Six-sigma quality initiative is highly relevant with the present business world because it is better than the total quality management process. The quality initiative of TQM only concentrates the quality level that allows the firms to attain pre-determined quality standard. On the other hand, Sig Sigma quality initiative permits the business organizations to understand the full prospective (past, present and future) of quality and its improvement (Morris, 2008).
In addition, Sig Sigma, quality initiatives also assist the business organizations to use statistical techniques and tools to improve the quality level and reduce the defects. This is data driven initiative that supports the organizations to compete with the highly changing and competitive environment (Tennant, 2001). It is relevant to the today’s world because it gives abilities to business people to keep one step ahead from its competitors in the business industry.
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In the present business environment, customer satisfaction and loyalty is also one of the main reasons to enjoy success. It helps the business leaders to manage competition as well as customer’s satisfaction level. This is a flexible technique that can be altered according to the requirements. The concept assists the Toyota to have a loyal group of customers, who will always offer a constant flow of revenues even there would be a cyclical downturn in the industry (Antony, 2007).
Best Practices to Make Six-Sigma Successful
Six-sigma is denoted buzzword of the today critical and sophisticated business world. It is a statistical tool to understand the quality level in quantitative terms. It is essential for the Toyota, and it should have expertise and professional to work on this quality initiative of Six- Sigma. Six-Sigma makes use of a great number of quality management methods (Morris, 2008). The best practices that make six-sigma successful are as followed:
Analysis of variance, Process Maps, ANOVA Gage R&R, Cause & effects diagram (fishbone or Ishikawa diagram), Chi-square test of independence and fits, control chart, correlation, cost-benefit analysis, histograms, pareto chart, regression analysis, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), root cause analysis and SIPOC analysis (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers), Value Stream Mapping, Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), etc. (The Importance of Statistical Thinking, 2010).
All these practices, tools and technologies support the business firms to lead innovation and enjoy the future potential of quality of the products and high customer satisfaction. Toyota can use any practices to resolve the current quality problem.
Implementation and Controlling Six-Sigma
Implementing Six-Sigma with global supply and manufacturing operations in an organization is not an easy task. There are two ways to implement the six-sigma in an organization (Morris, 2008). Firstly, through a separate organization that provides Six Sigma services to the main business. In this model, all Six Sigma projects run through the independent organization and making it easy to measure the impact of the changes (Morris, 2008).
Secondly, includes appointing leader. The leader of a Six Sigma project should be extremely proficient in the technical aspects of Six Sigma statistics and process. If a project requires a high degree of Six Sigma expertise, it will be led by a Black Belt, a term that possesses deep knowledge of Six Sigma methods and tools, if a project isn’t as complex, it will be led by a Green Belt.
Figure 1: Implementation of Six-Sigma (Six-Sigma Implementation)
Green Belts are used to solve the majority of process problems that arise in manufacturing and Yellow Belts are essential (Morris, 2008). They do apply some elements of the Six Sigma methodology. Yellow Belts includes staff members, administrators, operations, personnel and anyone else who might play a role.
‘Six-sigma’ requires Executive Leadership to be implemented successfully. It consists of the CEO and other chief top management team members. The Executive Leadership of the organization will be responsible for controlling and inventing a vision for the implementation of the six-sigma. The other role holders are empowered with the freedom and resources so that new ideas can be explored for breakthrough improvements (The steps to Implementing Six- Sigma, 2008).
Mistakes in the Controlling and Implementation of six-sigma are as followed:
Implementing six-sigma process successfully is a critical task for the business leaders. It needs a high level of accuracy and concentration. Lack of understanding of a manager to evaluate the company’s performance would be a biggest cause of failure. The manager should have skills to evaluate the high cost and poor quality of the firm.
The reasons for the failure of six-sigma are the use of external factors like wrong or misdirected selection of the tools, lack of application and lack of moral or psychological support from top management (Morris, 2008). Another biggest mistake is the wrong selection of approach to execute the six-sigma approach. It is important to keep in mind that for the successful implementation of Six Sigma, the organization requires a top down approach. The top-down approach of Six Sigma requires dedication and application at all the levels of the organization on a continuous basis. The statistical methodology of Six Sigma sheds light on existing flaws and their causes after thorough analysis (Hunt, 2008).
Lack of effective training and development programs for the top, middle and lower level management is also one of the main mistakes in the implementation and controlling of the six-sigma quality initiative. The executives and top management need to understand the concept of six-sigma, the steps and the requirements. In order to work for it, the management should participate actively. These employees should share some characteristics such as passion for improvement, positive attitude, etc. (The steps to Implementing Six- Sigma, 2008).
Thus, in order to execute the six-sigma process effectively, it is essential for Toyota to follow the figure one and conduct training and development programs for all the levels.
Smart App Locker is an Android Application which will help you to lock your apps which you don’t want to give access to anyone without your permission. This application has feature of Pattern Lock and Password Lock. You can lock each application separately. Now you can restrict your applications to access without your permission. It will help you to prevent from Data loss from beginner users or children. Smart App Locker is the ultimate tool to protect your apps and we help you enable or disable the lock as you see fit, you can even choose between the lock pattern mode at all times. One of the main benefits of using Smart App Locker is that it helps you take complete control over what apps you use and how you use them, but at the same time you get complete customization options and incredible attention to detail.
You can change the password from the side menu and you can also reset the password from the Menu option too. Smart App locker app is very efficient in work because it is tinny in size and also consumes less battery so that your phone perform smoothly. Smart App Locker can lock any social app (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Whatsapp etc.), contacts and many other apps in your phone.
Keeping your cell phones from undesirable clients is basic nowadays, when you may have a wide range of data that you’d like to keep individual. Regardless of whether you need to shield your children from getting to your photographs or your flat mate from getting to your Facebook account, an application bolt can ensure that just you choose who sees your stuff.
In our day to day life, we use our Smartphones. And we do various activity based on the Smartphone Apps. Sometimes we want to concentrate in our work or study. But, some of us are so addicted using our Smartphones that we can’t give our full concentration on our work or Study. In this situation we can lock those Apps in which we are addicted and concentrate in our work or study. Sometimes many parents give their Smartphones to their children. But they don’t want to give access to all Applications to their children. In this situation our App Locker can be a great solution for them.
1.3 Problem Statement
• While switching application you have to type password every time, because we don’t have feature to make applications unlocked until you lock your device.
• You will get undesirable lock screen while using the applications that you have locked.
1.4 Project Objective
• Our App Locker don’t have only Passcode option, we provide pattern lock and fingerprint lock also to ensure the maximum security level.
• In case you’re searching for some slick plan highlights to include, a ton of application bolt programming will enable you to pick in to application structures or distinctive home screens relying upon what get to level you’ve chosen.
• Suppose you need to limit the capacity for others to get to your photographs – Our App Locker can push you to explicitly lock particular substance like photographs or messages.
• One of the most serious issues that guardians have nowadays is children of any ages accessing budgetary data or application stores, or incidentally acquiring in-application content. The most ideal approach to stay away from this is by introducing an App Locker with the goal that you can make sure to secure against undesirable costs.
• There is nothing more terrible than the distrustfulness that somebody is experiencing your things, so an application bolt will enable you to feel more anchor about what is on your cell phones.
• Since app lock is a security feature intended to give you a chance to choose who approaches what on your telephone or tablet, numerous frameworks will also have extra security includes that watch out for application related malware or undesirable telephone snoops.
1.5 Scope of the Project
- Simple access.
- Gives Space control.
- Small in size.
- Cool Design features.
- Layers of protection.
- Password Lock, Pattern Lock & Fingerprint Lock.
- It Locks more than apps.
- Photos & Messages.
- It will save you money.
- It’s Free to Download.
- It goes to sleep and wakes back up.
- It increases overall security.
- It gives you peace of mind
AppLocker “Stay focused”, an application that helps you stay away from your smartphone and focuses on your work. This application has Pattern Lock password lock and Finger lock features. You can lock each and every separately.
This application will help you, you are not able to focus on any work, but you can make your app available through this application for a specific time. You’re doing an important work, suddenly a notification comes to your phone and you have reduced your work, entered Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and WhatsApp etc. Or you have started playing games. By doing this, you have been lagging behind in your work. This application will help you lock your apps for specific applications before working and you will not be able to access your applications until that time. This application is helpful to your work.
You can restrict in your applications without your permission. We often give smart phones to our children, but we do not think that phone can be very important data or any other harmful device for kids, we can lock them up to a specific time. While we are studying, we can’t focus on our reading while reading that we waste time on Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, games etc. Through this App Lock we can lock our apps up to a specific time. Then we will not be harmed by reading and in that time we will not be able to enter those apps.
We often waste our time in social media applications, this application will play an important role in our time being wasted. Through this application, I can block my site which is very harmful for us.
App locker “Stay focused”, app is very efficient in work because it is small size and also consumes less battery so that your phone perform smoothly. App Locker can lock any social app, ecommerce app, contacts and many other apps in your phone.
2.2 Related Work
When we search with the App Locker on Google Play Store, many apps are available in Google Play Store. But our application differs from all other applications. We found some Android apps like our application theme in Google Play Store. But we’re adding a lot of new features here, which is not in any other application. We’re adding a specific time where we will not be able to enter that application for a while and we will not be able to change it at that time. We’re discussing this Android application below.
2.3 Our Project Work
We want to build an Android application for our final year project. We create an Android application where users can use this app to select the applications that they want to lock. A social network application such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Gmail, and WhatsApp can be locked with pattern lock, finger lock, and password lock. When a user tries to access these applications, the user requests to set the set passcode, so that apps can be kept safe and private, which is helpful for our people. We can tie these applications for a while and before that time we can’t open that lock. This will not do any harm to our work.
2.4 Comparative Studies
In our Android application, we try to solve all problems, errors and limitations. After all, our Android app is a static application. It works without internet connection. Our Android app is so user-friendly than other related Android apps. Because it can make our life more beautiful. This is very important and a lot of things. We waste our leaf many times, through social interaction, with the help of this app, we can save us a lot of time. So we hope that users can easily enjoy the application using our Android application and the Android app will be helpful for the situation.
At the point when an engineer needs to think in an unexpected way, the designer dependably needs to confront diverse sorts of difficulties, rivalries, rivalries and hindrances. Like this circumstance, there are different difficulties, challenges, challenges and impediments in our task. Our undertaking is useful to individuals in our general public. Be that as it may, now we as a whole add to Facebook, what applications, Viber, IMO, Instagram, snap-talk and numerous other web based life applications. So it will be somewhat harder to do this in our nation.
We regularly squander our time in internet based life applications, this application will assume a vital job presently being squandered. Through this application, I can obstruct my site which is extremely destructive for us. Furthermore, we are endeavoring to give the client 100% fulfillment. On the off chance that we confront any issues identified with the security of a catch or our application, we are endeavoring to take care of this issue and tackle such issues.
We are 100% endeavoring to build up this venture. So we trust that one day client will be sent as a client’s most loved application because of easy to understand and supportive work. Presently, this is our fundamental objective. Presently, to achieve our central goal, these things can be trying for us.
3.1.1 Business Process Modeling
Business process modeling (BPM) is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed, improved, and automated. The term ‘business model’ is thus used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions to represent core aspects of including purpose, structures, operational processes and policies. The main characteristic of the methodology is based on diagram as ‘Flow Diagram’. Here we are trying to describe our project’s business model using Data Flow Diagram. Normally, Data Flow Diagram describes how data is processed though a system or project.
Figure 3.1: Data Flow Diagram of the system
In the figure 3.1, we are trying to draw a level of Data Flow Diagram of our system. In figure: 3.1 represent the Data Flow Diagram of our project’s system.
3.1.2 Waterfall Model
The waterfall model is a relatively linear sequential design approach for certain areas of engineering design. The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use.
Figure 3.2: Waterfall Model of the system
In the figure 3.2, we are also trying to draw a level of Waterfall Model as flowing steadily downwards through the phase of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing and Maintenance of our system. In figure: 3.2 represent the Waterfall Model of our project’s system.
3.2 Requirement Collection and Analysis
Requirements investigation is likewise called as necessities designing which is the way toward deciding client desires for another framework. These highlights, called requirements, must be quantifiable, important and detailed.
Requirements investigation includes visit correspondence with framework clients to decide particular element desires, goals of contention or ambiguity in requirements as requested by the different clients or gatherings of clients, shirking of highlight creep and documentation of all parts of the undertaking advancement process from beginning to end. For the undertaking improvement process, there are two kinds of necessities. One is the practical requirement and another is the non-utilitarian necessity.
3.3 Use Case Modeling and Description
A use case is a list of actions or event steps typically defining the interactions between a role and a system to achieve a goal. Here a role is known in the Unified Modeling Language as an actor. Use case analysis is an important and valuable requirement analysis technique that has been widely used in modern software engineering. There are many ways to write a use case in text, from use case brief, casual, outline, to fully dressed etc. and with varied templates.
Figure 3.3: Use Case of the system
In Figure: 3.3 represent the use case of our project’s system.
3.4 UML Class Diagram
Figure 3.4: UML Class Diagram
In the figure 3.4, we are trying to draw a level of UML Class Diagram for our system.
3.5 Design Requirements
The design requirements for our project will be creating deference between other projects. Because, at first we were simulated some projects and also found out some problem of these project. We try to make our project user friendly. We also try to provide all things to our project which are necessary for a user to using our application easily.
- In our android application, we design a normal front page so that any user can easily understand our application.
- In our App we have given 3 types of security Systems (Passcode Lock, Pattern Lock & Fingerprint Lock).
- We have gave an option to reset the security type if anyone forgets the passcode or pattern. But to avail this user must have to register a backup email in the settings option.
We are trying to build our as complex free. We think about user when we design our application. Because of this reason, our android application is so user friendly.
4.1 Front-end Design
The front-end is everything involved with what the user sees, including design and some languages. The front-end design is the user interface design what the user can see when he/she opens the application or websites. That means the most important things of a project is front-end designing. Usually most of the users expect a simple User Interface or Graphical User Interface from the developer, when he/she wants to open any application or website. If the front-end design is so complex, the application fails to attract of the user.
Therefore, we tried to design our application front-end as simple as possible. We also tried to easily accessible graphical user interface for the user. But it is really so tough matter when anyone design a graphical user interface for providing these types of facility for the user. But we tried our best for a simple design of our application. Hope, our application is so user friendly and the user can easily access to our application. We attach our android application’s front-end design as follows:
Figure 4.1: A Screenshot of Home Page UI
In figure 4.1, it shows the list of application that install on user mobile phone. The user can lock the specific application by clicking on them. User can also search the specific application by searching on the top bar and navigate menu from ‘Bottom Navigation’. Before accessing this home page user must authenticate with pattern or pin. If user install the ‘AppLocker’ application for the first-time user need to register new pattern for authenticate. Pattern Lock is a security measure that protects devices from unauthorized user. Our pattern lock took at least 4 moves and the breakdown of the combinations is 389112(approximate).
Figure 4.2: A Screenshot of Register with new Pattern.
In Figure 4.2 its shows a Pattern lock for register for the first time. For security the Pattern lock took at least 4 moves. After entering new pattern, it will ask for confirm the pattern. If the pattern Does not match with new pattern the pattern color will change into red (Figure 4.3). If the pattern match with new pattern than it will take user to home page that contain list of application of user phone (Figure 4.1).
Figure 4.3: A Screenshot of Confirm Pattern.
Figure 4.4: A Screenshot of Locking App.
After clicking on the listed app, a lock icon will appear on right side that means that specific application is locked (Figure 4.4). Again, clicking on the locked application, the lock icon will disappear from the right side that means that specific application is not locked anymore.
Figure 4.5: A Screenshot of Searching App.
User can also search specific application from searching bar on the top (Figure 4.5). It uses ‘Filter Search’ to find the match.
We also implement ‘Time Lock’ that lock the specific application for certain time. User just need to add timer and select app that user want to lock.
Figure 4.6: A Screenshot of Time Lock.
In Figure 4.6 it shows the time locker. User can set time by clicking on the ‘Time’ and select application by clicking ‘Select App’.
Figure 4.7: A Screenshot of Set Timer.
User can add Time by clicking on the time. A popup window will appear for adding hour and minute (Figure 4.7). Time limitation maximum 24 hours and minimum 1 minute.
Figure 4.8: A Screenshot of Select App.
Figure 4.9: A Screenshot of Turing on the timer.
User can add multiple application from ‘Select App’ (Figure 4.8). This selected app for time locker. After turning on the button the countdown timer is start. If user start the timer user can’t stop it (Figure 4.9).
Figure 4.10: A Screenshot of Time Lock.
In Figure 4.10 when user add a time locker and the timer is running and want to open time locker application, this UI will appeared on the top and show the reminder time.
Figure 4.11: A Screenshot of Setting.
In Figure 4.11 We add some security setting that you can config you own pattern, pin, recovery, fingerprint and many more.
Figure 4.12: A Screenshot of Unlock Mode.
In Unlock Mode (Figure 4.12). User can see two type of unlock mode
- Pattern Lock
- Password Lock
In Pattern lock user can change pattern (Figure 5.0). User can enable or disable Pattern Visibility that means when user draw a pattern is visible or not and also control touch vibrate.
In Password lock user can change user pin. Pin Lock provide 4-digit pin. There are 10,000 possible combinations that the digits 0-9 can be arranged to form a 4-digit pin code. User can enable or disable random keyboard & touch vibrate.
Figure 4.13: A Screenshot of Change Pattern.
Figure 4.14: A Screenshot of Security Email and Question.
User can add Email or Question for security (Figure 4.14). If user forget the pattern or pin than can reset it from recovery email or answering the security question.
Figure 4.15: A Screenshot of Fingerprint lock mode.
User can enable or disable the ‘Fingerprint Unlock’. Fingerprint lock is the most secure and faster to unlock application (Figure: 4.15).
4.2 Back-end Design
Back end development refers to the server side of an application and everything that communicates between the database and the application. AppLocker is completely offline application but there still need database to store locked application package name. Application contain package name that is unique to identify an application. We use MY SQLite Database that store AppLocker Data.
Figure 4.16: A Screenshot of ERD.
In our application there are one database that contain two table (Figure 4.16), the Locked App table use for the user locked specific application that store selected application ‘Package Name’ where it is primary key. The Package Name is the best way to identify an application easily and ‘Is Locked’ contain Boolean value. Where our application checked the locked application is locked or unlocked. Same things also happen on the ‘TimerLockdApp’ table.
4.3 Interaction Design and UX
Interaction Design is an important component within the giant umbrella of User Experience (UX) design. Interaction design is specifically a discipline which examines the interaction between a system and its user via an interface and User experience (UX) design is the process of creating products that provide meaningful and personally relevant experiences. It might likewise consolidate configuration concentrated on how data ought to be introduced inside such a framework to empower the client to best comprehend that data however this is regularly viewed as the different order of “data structure” as well.
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In our application, some features can interact with the user and application. We added an email option by which any user can send mail to us. If any user faces any problems, lacks or drawback, they can send mail to us for solving these kinds of problems. For User Experience (UX) design we have tried our best for designing a simple and easily mobile application. We have tried to give some fantastic and well experience by using our application. We keep our application too simple and also easily for better experience, feelings and performance for the user of using our application. Hope our systems is secured and helpful for the user.
4.4 Implementation Requirements
To implement our android application project, we used different types of tools, attributes and components which are helped us to develop our android application project successfully. In Implementation requirements area, we discuss all those tools, attributes and components that we have used to develop our android application project and making attractive to the user.
4.4.1 Android Studio
Android Studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) developed by Google’s for Android operating system, built on JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA software and designed specifically for Android application development. There are a lot of features of android studio like Gradle based build support, Android-specific refactoring and quick fixes, Andorid monitor tools to catch performance, usability, version compatibility and other problems, App-signing capabilities, Template-based wizards to create common Android designs and components, Android Virtual Device (Emulator) to run and debug apps in the Android studio. The best feature of android is supporting a number of programming languages. All this reason we utilize the Android Studio as our application integrated development environment (IDE). We use Android Studio 3.2.1 Stable Version.
220.127.116.11 Basic Android Overview
Android is a comprehensive platform, which means it is a complete software stack for a mobile device. It provides all the tools frameworks for developing mobile application simply, quickly and easily. We design our application with Extensible Markup Language (XML), connection with database server with Java Language in Android Studio. Android is also open source platform where developer can make any types of user interface which the developer needs to design his/her application. The developer can write any programming language for his/her application in android studio. So, developer can easily develop different types of mobile application by use it for user interaction.
4.4.2 The Emulator
An emulator is an Android Virtual Device (AVD) that represents a specific android device for emulating any types of android application or project. The developer can use an Android emulator as a target platform to run and test his/her Android applications on his/her Personal Computer (PC). By Using Android emulators is optional. We run our application in both our personal device and Android emulator too. The emulator runs the same code base as actual device. The emulator is so pretty for emulating android projects.
4.4.3 Android SDK
Android development starts with Android SDK (Software Development Kit). Android SDK is a set of collection of development tools used to develop and build of any kind of android application for android platform. That means Android SDK is essential tools for both developing and building any android application. We use Android SDK for both developing our android application and also testing our android application when need to run for seeing output.
4.4.4 DB Browser for SQLite
DB Browser for SQLite is a high caliber, visual, open source instrument to make, structure, and alter database records perfect with SQLite. It is for clients and engineers needing to make databases, seek, and alter information. It utilizes a recognizable spreadsheet-like interface, and you don’t have to learn muddled SQL directions.
IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
5.1 Implementation of Application
The implementation phase is where developer build the app based on the criteria. How the Application will look & how it will work is developed in this phase. After completing every step developer runs a simulation of the App to see if it works or not. Developer implement many methods to fulfill the requirements. The three most important classes on the Android platform are Context, Activity and Intent. While there are other, more advanced, components developers can implement, these three components form the building blocks for each and every Android application.
5.2 Application Design
We have tried to make our Application user friendly. That’s why our Application design is very simple. User will be able to use this app without any problem. Our Application’s design is based on a few options. These are given below:
- Easy to use Home Screen.
- In the Settings option user will have the independence to modify the settings of the app.
- Option for 3 types of Lock System.
- Passcode Lock
- Pattern Lock
- Fingerprint Lock
- User can set a backup Email Address. For extra security purpose. If user forgets his Password, one Mail will be sent to this email account containing a link for resetting the password.
- There will be some security questions also.
- Another Option is to set a timer and lock apps. After time ends, user will be able to use the locked apps.
5.3 Testing the Application
Table 1: Test Case for Project on App Locker.
5.4 Test Results and Reports
We need to test the app to check whether the App is running correctly or not. For the testing we followed a formal way. We tested every functions of our Apps in different smartphones, in different days. All of the test results are positive. In the ‘Table: 5.1’ we have shown the test procedures with the results.
We find our expected results for our application. The test result was quite successful. The user satisfies to using our application. Our expectation will be that user can easily use and understand our application as a better user interface.
CONCLUSION AND FURTHER SCOPE
6.1 Discussion and Conclusion
Our android based Smartphone application has been successfully executed. We have finally completed our application work. For executing our application, we have tested the application with various types of smartphones, our application worked successfully in every aspects.
Our application design is very user friendly. The user interface is very simple. User can use our application without facing any problem. We tried our best to complete all requirements. We hope that people will use our application and will get the best result.
6.2 Limitations of Our Application
We know every application have some drawbacks, our application has also some limitations. We will overcome those limitations in future. Some of the main limitations of our application are given below:
- We can implement this App in our own device, we can’t lock Apps from any other device.
- While switching application you have to type password every time, because we don’t have feature to make applications unlocked until you lock your device.
- You will get undesirable lock screen while using the applications that you have locked.
6.3 Scope for Future Developments
We are developing our application in present time. If we find any scope for developing in future, we want to develop and change something of our application. Our future developments scopes are given below:
- In future, we will try to make this application for all platforms in smart phones. (Android & IOS)
- We will try to add some other services to our App.
 “Android Studio.” https://www.quora.com/What-is-android-studio [last accessed: Nov. 12, 2018]
 “UI Design” https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/7-great-tried-and-tested-ux-research-techniques [last accessed: Nov. 12, 2018]
 “App Development” https://www.computerworld.com/article/2514892/application-development/app-develoSmart And User Friendly User Interface Information Technology Essaypment-how-to-build-an-android-application-step-by-step.html [last accessed: Nov. 12, 2018]
 “Data Protection” https://www.themeslide.com/smart-app-locker-protect-data/ [last accessed: Nov. 12, 2018]
 “Business Process Modeling.” Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_modeling [last accessed: Nov. 12, 2018]
 “Waterfall Model.” Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model [last accessed: Nov. 03, 2018]
 “Interaction Design and UX Design.” Internet: https://www.inter
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Now a days ubiquitous computing is one of the most significant field for study and research. There are lots of potential applications of ubiquitous computing and growing number of research lab to work on this field that will be the next computer era . There are working in various research topics in ubicom applications, like sensor network, mobile computing, human computer interaction (HCI), artificial intelligence (AI), distributed computing, augmented reality (AR), wearable computing, tangible interface, robotic and multimodal interface. In my report I am interested in studying designing the user interface for ubiquitous computing. There are number of established methods to build the user interface that will be smart and user friendly.
In this report section 1.1 I will discuss about the different phase of computing while in section 1.2 will describe about ubiquitous computing and section 1.3 will discuss about the characteristics of ubiquitous computing. In the section 2, I will explain about how to build a good interface and what are these contains to build a good interface.
Mark Weiser (1952-1999) is the father of ubiquitous computing (UbiCom). He was the first introduced and coined the term UbiCom and he is the head of UbiCom project at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center). The PARC is an independent organization and it was a birthplace of most of the development that marked the PC era like, the mouse, windows based user interface, desktop metaphor, the laser printer, and many concept of Computer Supported cooperative work (CSCW) .
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“Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives.” –Mark Weiser and Brown
In the article “The Coming Age of Calm Technology” Mark Weiser and Brown described the evaluation of three phase use of computers. These three phases are mainframe era, personal computer era and the ubiquitous computing era. The first phase we call mainframe era, lots of people share one computer and it has a common sharing resource. And it was allowed many people to use the mainframe at the same time. The second phase we call personal era, one computer use only one person. This phase started from 1984 where number of people uses the personal computer and it was surpassed or achievement in number of people using shared computers. The relationship is personal for personal computer (PC) even intimate. For example, you have a computer so it contains your staff and your information where you can interact directly and deeply with it. The personal computer still used in the pilot, the Newton, the Zaurus and it’s also used as one can own several personal computers for home and work and one can own several cars for road. The concept ubiquitous computing is the third phase of computing and it cross-over point with personal computer within 2005-2020. Internet and distributed computing is a transition step to the third phase of ubiquitous computing. In this phase lot of computers sharing the information each of us and some of these computers will be the hundreds that can access a few minutes for internet browsing and some these will be embedded in chair, wall, clothing, light, cars in everything.
What is Ubiquitous Computing?
The word “ubiquitous” derived from Latin word “ubÄ«que” which means everywhere and from “ubÄ«” which means where. According to the oxford dictionary the word “ubiquitous” means “seemingly presents everywhere at the same time”. Consequently “ubiquitous computing” means we can say computing seemingly everywhere at the same time .
According to Weiser´s article “Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing”, he mentioned:
“Ubiquitous computing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user” 
In this article, he wanted to describe that ubiquitous computing offers a framework and its come from various sub-discipline of computer science like: different chips is hardware components, network protocol, interaction substrates is software for screens and pens, privacy and computational methods. By using these device user can compute and communicate and interact with each other in a pervasive way. He also mentioned about phase I in his article, phase I means: to construct, deploy and learn from a computing environment that are consisting of tabs, pads and boards. The aim of this technology to enhance computer to utilize computer resources through the physical environment and it makes invisible for users .
In the article “The Computer for the 21st Century” Weiser mentioned,
“The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it” .
Ubiquitous computing is making life easier everyday in our life through the technology. In his article he also mentioned that for information technology it is a large potential because ubiquitous computing always prepare to write everywhere anytime. Writing anywhere is the simple example of ubiquitous technology like, writing in newspapers, writing in the books, and writing in the billboards in the streets. Ubiquitous computing also makes invisible from users and some devices are embedded in our everyday life like TV, cell phones, cars, clothes, and etc. He also expressed his prediction in his article that computer will disappear from our sight and it will be part of objects that we use in our daily life.
Characteristics of ubiquitous computing
In this section, discuss about different characteristics of ubiquitous computing. It might be ubiquitous, embedded, nomadic and timeless. In this following discuss about these characteristics:
Ubiquity: This is the important character of ubiquitous computing, where user can access his device, can get information from anywhere in anytime.
Embedded: we can say computing and communications both properties are exist in the world. So, these properties user can feel it and user can act on it also.
Nomadic: Nomadic provides that users and the computing can frequently move without a fixed pattern of movement.
Adaptive: According to the user´s activity and their operation condition user´s get more flexibility and autonomy for computing and communication.
Timeless: don’t need to use the re-start operation and if the system gets any problem then it´s components can upgrade easily.
Designing the user interface
A user interface (UI) or simply it called “interface” means user will interact with a computer or other hardware devices. There are different contains to represent user interface like, screen menus and icons, keyboards, command language, physical buttons for dial and levers. All input devices are also included like, mouse, remote control, touch screen, joy stick and etc. In the future, speech recognition and also natural language will bring a standard component of user interface for user .
The design of a good user interface is one kind of art. And it is an important thing for information and communication technology (ICT) which has been neglected for a long time. A good user interface provides a “user-friendly” experience where user will interact with computer software or hardware in a natural way and also intuitive way. A software developer implements those things they have found useful themselves and they also think how it will be beneficial for those specific users. But problem is that most of the users are not software developer and they don’t have experience interact with technology that´s why their interacting way also different .
If we think for a minute about our typical day, how many interactive products we used in our daily life? We used lot of interactive products in our daily life like: cell phone, remote control, computer, TV, soft drink machine, ATM, personal organizer, coffee machine, ticket machine, in library access, photocopier, printer, calculator, video games, and the list is endless. But if we think form a user point of view, how usable these products, how many are actually easy, effortless, and enjoyable to use? All of them, several or just one or two? We used many interactive products where users have to carry their task to interact with them. But haven’t designed how they will interact with them like: buying a ticket from online, photocopying an article, pre-recording a TV program. Users have been engineered with those systems to perform set functions . Another example of that, when user interact with system and something goes wrong user found a message: “an error occurred code 127” users don’t know what the problem was and why it was happen?  
The goal of usability
The main goal of the design user interface is to redress this type of concern by bringing into the design process. The developer has to be concern about their design process that is easy of learning, effective, safety and security, joy and fun to use from user´s perspective. The main goals of usability that we want actually to achieve from a user perspective describe in the bellow :
Easy of learning and memorizing: When designer will design a system then he/she have consider always about novice user. How a novice user will interact with the system easy way and how they will memorize from that system.
Safety and security: A good designer have to consider about the system safety and security that means designer have to ensure that those system is not harmful for users and also other user affected by use those system. It should be protect users from a dangerous or undesirable situation.
Effectiveness: Effectiveness means those systems is effective to use for a user. It refers a user can solve task effectively and he/she can be handled all task.
Joy and fun: If a designer design a system but it is not fun for a user or it’s a pain for user to interact them. Then usability goal will break so, designer has to consider on that things.
Efficiency and functionality: Designer has to ensure that that system is efficient to user and functionality of the system is usable for a user. A good design and user friendly system should allow for quick and timely work. Because people don’t like spending time that how system is work, they want system will start straight away and carrying out task without too much effort.
When a designer will design a system they have to consider this things, otherwise usability will break of the system. And it depends on system like: when designing an interactive game-for that interactive game designer have to concentrate on game might be joy and fun more important and effective is less important for this game. Another example is that a system for fireman, then designer has to concentrate on system might be more efficient and it can be less fun.
The design model steps
In this section describe different steps to design a model, like context definition, user´s description, users task analysis, user requirements, prototyping, how to evaluate, how to implements, who will tests, and maintenance. A number of models have been proposed to build design process like waterfall model, star model that is open and decision can be revised depending on user feedback. The design steps of model describe in the following  :
Context definition: Context definition means designer should be define for what reason system will be use. It can be use for life critical or fun purpose, it can use in home or office environment, or in a market. And it is also important to mention that who is going to buy the product for what purpose.
User´s description: User description means user´s must have to carefully analyzed because it’s created based on context definition where each group can affect directly or indirectly.
And for that reason their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and cultural background can be affect the way they interact with the system.
Task analysis: Task analysis or functional analysis defines that designer should find out how a user actually solve their task currently, what type of tools they used to sold their task, and how they are interacting right now with existing system. The designer should collect that type of information and they can collect it from a user ´s informal interviews and observation.
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Requirements: This is the important step and it should be first step of the classical software development process. It is called user centered design because it is based on understanding of the users, user´s tasks and user context. The main thing is that requirements can be changed in different iteration and when they will evaluate the system they can get better idea about the system.
Conceptual and formal design: The requirements and specifications of the systems are translated into the system components to build a conceptual and formal design.
Prototyping: Prototyping defines a fundamental version of an interactive system is built, tested, then reworked as necessary until a finer version. It can be very simple design sketch; it might be also working and complete version of a system which is depending on the stage of iteration.
Evaluations: The designers shouldn’t think that everyone is like them and they also shouldn’t assume that their design guideline guarantees good usability. Evaluation is the process to check that user can use the system and user likes to use the system.
Implementation, test and maintenance: After prototyping and evaluation they will get a final version prototype that is full fill the design goal. And then they can implement that final prototype. Test and maintenance of the system is also important in design process, so they can help to further improvement of the system.
For build a good user interface these design steps are the building blocks. In every interactive system they are vary generic and also their also valid. So, without user involvement we cannot derive system requirements from interaction goals. Without taking these steps system will be fail. Many ubiquitous computing prototypes are made totally technology driven where developers actually focus on different smart gadget, network and new infrastructure. But they don’t focus their design effort on users.
Fig-1: Star model for user-centered design 
Importance of Evaluation and Prototyping
Evaluation and prototyping is the most important process for iteration to designing smart and user-friendly user interface for ubiquitous computing. Because using evaluation process designer can find difficulties of the system, they can find idea from user experience and then they can try to find the ways to improve the system. To designing the smart user interface designer have to consider these things, like what is happening in existing system for that reason, where they have to start? Which process or method will apply? When they have to stop? Why it is important to evaluate for an interaction designers, mentioned in the following :
Where they have to start?
In the initial stage don’t need any system, can make demo system. Then try to build a real one and that will be easy in the initial stage. They can use different methods like, sketching, Wizard of Oz, mock-ups, and prototypes.
Sketching: Sketching is the design method where designer just draw in paper or on a blackboard from his/her idea and that is looks like a real system. And users and expert user will evaluate that design idea and then they can change their basic idea if they mistake anything . There are three purposes to make the sketching. The first one is, it is way to think where design ideas can develop and grow in the conversation between eye and hand. The second is, it is easy way to communicate because design ideas are made available for other inspection, criticism, appropriation, and development. The last purpose, it is way to persuade where in the design process other stakeholders may be convinced of the value a design idea through sketches .
Wizard of Oz Experiments: Using wizard of Oz experiments designer can see the reactions of people as they interact with to be developed technologies. And after experiments designer will get feedback that will inform to design direction and choice of development technologies going forth. The main goal of this technique to collect the information about the nature of the interaction, test and check which input technique and sensing mechanism will better to represent better interaction, find out the problem, and test the interaction of the device before building the functional model Wizard of Oz experiments is very good to test advance system (e.g. NL-systems and such) .
Mock-ups: In the design process mock-ups is used for collect feedback from users about designs and idea of this design. It is consists of low-fidelity (e.g. power point) materials. Users will “look and feel” about the design. Mock-ups are “very early prototypes” that means in this stage doesn´t included the real functionality of the system. The main advantages of this method, mock-ups make it possible to usability testing early in the development process, mock-ups experiments is incite and legalize that’s why it is inexpensive to change, and mock-ups concentrate on their content and their functionality and turn away from details of graphics design.
Prototypes: In the design process prototype is an easily modified and extensible model. Where it has been including interface and input/output or actual functionalities of the target system. There are two types of prototypes: low-fidelity and high-fidelity. Low-fidelity is a set of drawings (e.g. paper, pen, cardboard, etc) don’t look like final system and it is static, non-computerized user interface where high-fidelity look like a final system. High-fidelity is consists software tools such as Photoshop, HTML, CSS and Java Script  .
Which method or process will apply?
To evaluation the system uses different methods or process. In this section, describe different methods or process and describe which methods or techniques are better for which situation. There are many factors are involving to select the right technique, like budget of the system, nature of the system and maturity of the design. When designer will choose the method then they have to ensure that the evaluation method and tools using appropriately.
Quantitative or qualitative methods: Quantitative methods deal with numbers that can be measured like length, height, cost, error rates, compilation times, frequency, efficiency of an interface, etc. Quantitative methods provide this type of information and this information is easy to analyze statistically and fairly reliable. Where qualitative methods deal with observation and collecting data from users comments, impression of users, and subjective rating is collected in case studies or interviews or questionnaires.
Field study or study in the lab: Field studies methods is an investigator viewing users or to see the real condition about the system that where the system actually use. The investigation can be in the office or home of the users. And this investigation may be either direct or indirect. In the direct observation, investigator will present during the task and in the indirect observation investigator can see the task using video recorder. Where lab studies method, need more effort to simulate the conditions.
Usability testing or expert evaluation: In the software industry usability testing has proven to very attractive because usability testing involve with real test users. Many companies operate labs to perform usability testing and they have invited the users and technical people for to test the usability of the system. Usability testing is one of the popular methods because it works well with requirements driven system development. Where expert evaluation is more expensive because it’s costly to find the expert user. Expert users have knowledge about different technique to evaluate the system like, cognitive walkthrough, thinking aloud method, discount evaluation, and their combination also helpful in some case .
When they have to stop?
The development life cycle (design-prototyping-evaluate the system) can go on forever leading to continuous improve the usability. But designer cannot finish this cycle without finish. It may be number of cycle fixed that they have to stop within like 4steps or have to mention before when loop will stop otherwise they cannot go final design. For example, their goal could be 93% of the test user rate which is very convenient of a system; another example is task compilation rate is 96% of a system with fixed time. In some case we can say like this, “the system is out of budget” or “you have finish within one week”.
Issues of User interface for Ubiquitous Computing
In the previous section we have acquired knowledge about what are the processes to build a good user interface. The principles we have discussed before these are generic and it can also apply to design smart and user-friendly user interface for ubiquitous computing. It is also acceptable for other user interface such as web based user interface or graphical user interface. And these general processes of human centered design we can apply also non-IT product which we used every day in our life like coffee machines, car design, and simple devices like sinks design, doors design, telephones design and other object of our daily life.
On the other side, ubiquitous computing discuss about the integrating things into objects which we used in our regular life. However, usability has ability to understanding and good maturity about ubiquitous computing to do with the usability of everyday things.
The concept “invisible” came from Mark Weiser article “Some computer science issues in ubiquitous computing”. He mentioned, invisible interfaces are naturally usable or that are become from user self-perception. From the concept of invisible, we can say a most simple example about physical objects of our body parts. Where we don’t need to think about what we will do with our arms, but we just do the things that we want. When we go out from our house, we don’t need to remember that to take our arms with us, we might need it today. It’s already exist with us and always ready to use. So, when we speak something about ubiquitous computing interface that is “invisible” or computer that are “disappearing”. That means, we speak about those things that are present and “ready-to-hand”  .
D. Norman emphasizes in his article “The design of Everyday things” that, a good design is allowing a good mapping. Where a design model is the designer´s conceptual model and user model is the mental model which developed through interaction with system. In the figure mentioned three things: design model from designer point of view, users model from user point of view and system image that is must be design appropriate because if the system in inappropriate then user can´t easily use the design system. D. Norman provides an idea of affordance, which is perceived the actual properties of an object that give clause to its operation. Like mouse pointer and scrollbars functionalities provides the virtual affordance for computer affordance and many metaphors on our computer signal. Where the mapping is provides the relationship to control their effect .
Fig: Mapping of design model, mental model and system image .
There are number of issues rising from the perspective of ubiquitous computing to interact. And these issues are mentioned in the bellow :
Allow Mental Models: The design model have to support mental model. People think from his or her point of view like, how use a system and they also predict how the system actually react with their actions. The system image should support what the people are thinking then that will be easy to understand about the system.
Respect cognitive econo
Skills And Knowledge For Successful System Development Information Technology Essay
my: People always try to use their own concept and their own idea. So, design model have to consider their idea and they can make a new idea that will be easy to understand for a new artifact.
Make things visible and transparent: Design model have to consider the visibility of a system, like what is the status of a system right now, is it loaded right now or is it empty now. Defining the status of the system user will be able to understand state of the device and the alternatives for action.
There is no doubt that information system analyst is playing an increasingly important role in most of the successful system project development. To achieve this, information system analyst must possess a wide range of qualities which involves appropriate skills and abilities as well as sufficient knowledge in the implementing system of users supports and functioning of business. It has to be considered that information system analyst carries responsibilities to analyse and understands the complex needs of human resources, people skills, technical understanding and process facilitation and it is basically applied from the first day of the system project’s existence. It is crucial for every information system analyst to have dynamic project teams which are not static and unchanging as to ensure that they are able to articulate the needs that are associated with the key problem to be solved or opportunity to be realized. There are also several barriers exist in gathering and interpreting of system development that needs to be concerned by information system analyst as this will affect the results of the system and the effectiveness of system development. This paper is critically emphasized on the skills and knowledge of an information system analysts and how these skills and knowledge have impacted in the successful in system project development. The structure of the paper will begin with the introduction, terminologies section, knowledge required by system analyst, most important skills and competencies for a system analyst as well as a conclusion as the summarization of the whole topic.
Keywords: system analyst, system analysis, knowledge, analytical skills, technical skills, interpersonal skill, managerial skills, communication skills
Initially, information system analyst is highly necessary to run a system project. Without an information system knowledge and appropriate skill set, it is hardly to achieve project’s goals. There are various formal and informal roles that system analyst play in creating successful. In short, every system analyst in a project has their own responsibilities that carry both formal and informal task and sometimes they are also assigned to run in a big or small project concurrently based on the project requirements to achieve project successfulness. Essentially, a system analyst plays an important role in the process of system development life cycle tasks which involved project planning, analysis, design, implementation and support process. Each process requires a system analyst to perform a different task and they must possess a wide range of skills with sufficient knowledge. This is important as system development is a very difficult activity that needs very careful planning, control and execution.
With the emergence of information technology, system has become increasingly role in most of the organization. In fact, a good system becomes the solely sustainable advantage for organizations to gain a winning position in today’s highly competitive world. Parallel with that, the task of a system analyst becomes more difficult because they have to deal with a different organization with different requirements. According to Misic and Graf (2004), systems analyst perform their job is characterized by a constant changes where the change of the environment and uncertainty places forces the system analyst to regularly and consistently updates their task and activities. Meaning here, the system analyst should be able to adapt to the environmental changes. For that, a system analyst has to learn the culture or environment for every organization that they assigned to develop a system in order for them to effectively perform their job and meet the project’s goals. In addition, they also need to have full understanding of system development and try to apply it within the organization with the support of knowledge and skills as it is very important and necessary to ensure the organization gain value and outperform rivals.
Numerous articles have been written about system analyst skills and knowledge by many authors. Various authors have expressed different opinions on the skills that should be possessed by a system analyst such as analytical, technical, managerial and interpersonal or communication skills. There are two key skills that are needed to perform system analysis tasks, fact-finding for the investigation of system requirements and modelling of a business process based on the system requirements (Satzinger, Jackson and Burd, 2009). Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide thorough information on the aspects of tasks, knowledge and important skills of today’s system analyst as well as to identify the impact of these aspects towards the effectiveness of system development.
2.0 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS: SYSTEM ANALYST, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
There are several of definition of a system analyst have been identified by many professionals. The meaning of the terms may vary from various authors depending to business process, workflow and discipline where it is used; however, the concept of a system analyst remains the same. According to Dennis and Wixom (2003), system analyst can be defined as the individuals who generate ideas and suggestions for how information technology can improve business processes, define new processes with the help of a business analyst, design a new information system and ensure that all the standard information systems maintained. In contrast, Whitten and Bentley (2007) have defined system analyst as a specialist who is responsible in identifying and study the organization problems and needs as to determine how people, data, processes and information technology can contribute to the business developments.
Some people get confused the meaning between system analyst and computer programmer. Basically, a system analyst is not a computer programmer; he or she is individuals that decided what form of information technology to be used in the development of a system, whereas a computer programmer is individuals which are responsible in putting appropriate instructions with specific code into a computer system. However, both Information System professionals have similar skills needed in system development, which is emphasized on technical skills (Lee, 2002). Systems analyst and computer programmer are related in some way or another, but they are not exactly the same. Systems analyst requires different skills. Instead, computer programmer is focused on a particular emphasis of the study. Systems analyst and computer programmer like other professions were forced to have a sense of ethics. As viewed by Kagan and Sobolo (1987), systems analyst job involves analysis of the problem or needs information on the organization and resolve the problem through the design of an efficient pattern of information flow from the source data into the computer. In different point of views by Green (1989), system analysts are service providers who are work closely with users as to define, develop and implement computer based system in order to meet business and other requirements. The involvement of users is required to help the system analyst to do analysis and synthesis tasks on a particular system. Almost similar with Misic and Graf (2002) views, system analyst acts as problem solver where they work closely with users and management in collecting and analyzing information on current and/or future computer-based system.
Information system knowledge and appropriate skills for effective tasks and duties is needed to be an excellent system analyst. Several authors reviewed knowledge as an actionable or relevant information available in the right format at the right time and at the right place for decision making. In other words, people seek knowledge because it assists them to improve performance and succeed in their work. Knowledge also is the most precious therapy for complexity and uncertainty. Further, the process of system development depends heavily on knowledge so that, by having right knowledge, organization can produce a good decision making with producing good product and services to ensure meet the business requirements. In the case of information systems, knowledge can be referred to as content or technical information needed to do an adequate job and is usually acquired through formal education, on job training and information media such as the manuals (Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990).
Meanwhile, skills are referred to the specific psychomotor processes necessary to meet the current requirements of job a specific job. Skills also include facilities to choose from between the repertoire of action that may be most appropriate for their specific actions (Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990). Environmental projects may differ from an organization to organization and project to project, however, some skills will help in almost any environmental project. These skills include understanding the changes and understand how the organization works within the social, political and physical. Important to realize, understanding the importance of system analyst activities and the related skills and knowledge may be critical in successful of system development.
3.0 KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED BY SYSTEM ANALYST
Before starting to analyze and design a system, it is very important for a systems analyst to have sufficient knowledge about the various fields of knowledge depends primarily on the duties and level of development of the system. Based on Vitalari (1985), there are six key concepts of the knowledge base have emerge, namely, core system analysis domain knowledge, high-rated domain knowledge, application domain knowledge, functional domain knowledge, organization specific knowledge and knowledge of methods and techniques.
Vitari (1985) said that core system analysis domain knowledge is essential components of system analyst’s knowledge to achieve satisfactory levels of performance. It is very important to meet the needs of the user to ensure the output of the system development will produce high satisfaction to the users. Important to realize that, systems analysts need to know what commitments are expected from the user and the user also knows what is expected of the systems analyst. In addition, by having this knowledge it help the system analyst to avoid committing mistakes and delaying the project to be completed. Whereas high rated domain knowledge is referred to the knowledge that distinguishes high rated analysts from low rated analysts. Application domain knowledge is a knowledge related to several information system applications such as expert system, decision support system, transaction processing system and end user computing.
4.0 MOST IMPORTANT SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES FOR SYSTEM ANALYST
The system analyst needs certain skills to conduct system development. They need the skills to do systems analysis and design, where they have to understand what stakeholders (users, clients and technical staffs) need as to analyze the flow of data or enter data in a systematic, process or transform data, store data, and output information in the specific context of the business (Kendell and Kendell, 2010). Systems analysts aim to improve and develop information systems and information technology to get the best benefits for business especially in solving the business problems. Essentially, job skills support the core information system capabilities to determine the effective exploitation of technology innovation for IT organizations (Lerogue, Newton and Blanton, 2005). There are number of opinions that describe the skills that system analyst should be possessed to be successful. Following is the most important skills and competencies for a system analyst as pointed by various authors.
According to Misic and Graf (2002) in their article entitled “System analyst and skills in the millennium”, analytical skills were considered the most important skills in the system development. Analytical skills can be defined as the ability to examine things critically and/or minutely, to separate the clear picture into its individual components (Misic and Graf, 2002). As indicated by Misic and Graf (2002), these skills provide the primary basis for an individual to adapt to changes in technology and by focusing on the development of their current employees and / or recruiting new employees that strong analytical skills of focusing mainly on a technical background, management information system will form a team development to be successful today and also in the face of the next wave of inevitable change and stress in their technological procedures. They also indicated that, this skill is applied in defining and analyzing requirements and insuring the fit within the organizations information system environment. In other hands, analytical skills were involved in the analysis process where it is the task to understand the whole of something by breaking it down into important components. By understanding its components and how they fit together in a larger whole, it leads to understand the whole better.
Analytical skill requires a system analyst to precisely in defining the problems. It is a fact that, knowing how to define a problem is a tough part. They have to find a way to break things into elements and utilize those elements to understand the real situations. The system analyst tasks might involve visualizing, articulating, and solving complex problems and concepts, and making sensible decisions based on information available. Analytical skills assist the system analyst to figure out the needs of the organizations and then try to satisfy those needs with a new system development.
The growing use of technology has become a major part of the organization around the world. This led to the making the task of properly defines the problem ever more difficult. The system analyst has to be more precise in defining the problem besides determining the scope of a new system. This is the task where, system analysts have to properly define the possible problem and the target where they aim to hit. Important to know that, if the problem is wrongly identified it may impact on the system development, such as the new system will not well known, more time needed to do some research on a new system and many possible issues might be occurred. In contrast, if the problems are well identified with the analytical skill is applied to do this; the solutions to the particular problem are usually straightforward. Furthermore, to ensure the problem is precisely identified, systems analysts need to analyze and address the available information, to know what information sources are good, to be able to access and to make effective use in developing a new system. Identifying very clearly defined and specific problem is an important step to successfully implement the first solution.
Interpersonal skills and communication skills
Interpersonal and communication skills are other skills that required by every system analyst. Such skills are required at various stages of the development process for interacting with the users and try to identify their requirements in order to find out possible solutions to that particular problem. Interpersonal skills are related with individual skills needed to interact with individuals that associated with an IS project. In other words, interpersonal skills also can be referred as a behaviour and attitudes of individual, interpersonal communication and group behaviour in the IS context (Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, 2005). According to Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, (2005) in their study, IS managers have viewed these skills as the most important set skills for a system analyst in affecting IS success, whereas, for CIOs and end users indicated that technical skills were the most vital skills in successful of system development. Several authors indicated that behavioural, social, communication and soft skills are sometimes referred to interpersonal skills as its characteristic represents the individual behaviours such as articulating and speaking skills to interact with the users, ability to work in a team such as programmers, analysts and other system professionals, personal motivation and working independently, good listener, ability to write and many more. Based on Odini (1991), interpersonal skills are term use to describe variety of social and communicative skills that involve two way communication skills, styles of positive behavior, leadership and teamwork and understanding of human behavior and interpersonal relationships in terms of interaction with relevant individuals. In contrast, Misic and Graf (2004) have distinguished interpersonal and communication skills into two different categories. Interpersonal skills are the ability to interact with other workers including end users, other system analyst, managers and outside vendors. Meanwhile, communication skills are referred to the ability of people to effectively write and speak clearly, able to summarize a document and that document must be understandable to the users.
Most of the company IT based found that interpersonal skills or communication skills in both speaking and writing and ability to work in a team are very important and necessary to carry out their task. A system analyst needs to have communication skills as they are required to write user requirements into technical specifications. It is a fact that, good communication skills is significance to help the system analyst to interact with users in order to identify their needs, to interact with system designers to assist them in developing of a system interface as well as to communicate with the system developer as to keep track of system development. According to Green (1989), “system analysts believe that they must rely on behavioral skills to effectively interact with user during the crucial stages of problem definition and analysis”. As indicated by Misic and Graf (2004), if a system analyst is able to interact well with users, it shows that he or she has the ability to work with members of the project team. Moreover, a system analyst should spend time getting close to the diverse stakeholders such as users, client and technical staffs in order to obtain information as they are the group of people who will use a new system and will benefit most from it. Generally, interpersonal skill is a significant factor in the success of a system analyst in developing system. The excellent system analyst is involved in every aspect of the system development process, and is actively involved in the interaction design for the system. They have an understanding of the various ways the stakeholder need to interact with the system, understand the different needs and to identify the different aspects of design that will work for different stakeholders.
Based on Green (1989), management must recognize that successful system development depends on both behavioral and technical skills. He added that, training to improve behavioral skills such as interviewing and listening is needed. This is because they have to interact with many groups of people in various businesses where this group of people provides valuable insights to ensure the system satisfies the business needs. Besides, system analysts also liaise with almost every department of the business that is involved in solving the system problem. In addition, management must also provide an orientation program for the users involved in new projects. This program is mainly about the specific activities of system development and related skills needs for analysis. This program may facilitate the improvement of interaction skills and promoting greater consumer awareness of the importance of behavioral skills for systems development functions (Green, 1989).
There is no doubt that technical skills are areas commonly considered major to the computer related profession including system analyst. According to Misic and Graf (2004) technical skills are the ability to use techniques such as the development of systems of functional decomposition, data flow diagrams, process specifications, object-oriented analysis, data modeling, computer programming, hardware and software knowledge and other tools that are recognized to help in the development of a system. Similar with Lerouge, Newton and Blanton (2005) technical skills referred to hardware, software and programming aspects of information systems.
In different point of views, Gallagher et. al (2010) indicated that technical skills can be divided into three major categories, foundational skills, operational skills and essential skills. Table 1, shows some of the technical skills that need to be possessed by every IT professional.
Table 1: Technical Skills
Desktop Support/ Helpdesk
Database Design / Management
Voice / Data Telecommunications
Continuity / Discovery Planning
Mainframe / Legacy
IT Architectures / Standard
Source: Adapted from Gallagher et. al (2010)
Based on the above table, it can be assumed that system analyst requires all three technical skills as to stay competitive with today’s dynamic environment, especially in the emergence of the internet and intranet technologies. This rapid change in technology forced the system analyst to prepare and focuses on the system analysis and development of a system by mastering all relevant technical skills. Foundation skills are skills to be obtained in advance by system analysts for their basic knowledge for continued career growth as well as before further develop to a higher level of skills. Whereas as indicated by Gallagher et. al (2010), “operational skills often in particular, but they are usually not firm-specific. Though, they may be specific to technology providers such as, IBM mainframes or Microsoft server products”. These skills are important to solve problems that are related to the computers and both hardware and software. Meanwhile, essential skills are the most important skills in assisting a system analyst to perform task in analyzing and designing of system development.
There are changes in the system analyst technical skill set due to the development of technology. In addition, these skills have increasingly emphasized across all IS job. According to Lee (2002), the skills involved were desktop, operating systems, third generation languages, database and packages as well. In contrast, Haga et. al (2007), have identified three major technical skills set that is listed in the job bank, there are, database skills, operating system skills and other miscellaneous skills. Table 2, summarizes the technical skills required for a system analyst listed in the job bank. Some of these skills are crucial for them to operate and implement the system development.
Table 1: Technical skills required for system analyst listed in the job bank.
Operating System Skills
Other Miscellaneous Skills
SQL & PL/SQL
Data Mining/ Data Warehousing
Internet/ Intranet Development
Accounting (pay-roll, etc)
Tech Support/ Help Desk
Source: Adapted from Haga et. al (2007)
It can be concluded that excellent system analyst only can be developed through appropriate skills and sufficient knowledge. While developing an effective project team members, the team leader also need to have multiple skills in managing those people in the project management. According to Tan (2004), due to multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional of project management, a good manager is an individual that can wear multiple hats and work in any discipline of development to plug up any shortcomings. For system analysts, it is necessary for them to fulfil the excellent system analyst characteristic in order to achieve project goals on time and within the budget besides preventing a conflict with others in the same project.
Design for errors: Sometimes system can be fail to mapping between user models and the system. People can make error and most of the error comes from human errors and sometimes come from mapping error. That’s why system must guide to users how to resolve the making error or finding the solution against the wrong task. Using undo-actions or sanity checks technique can use for solve
Consistency in internal and external: To designing interface designer have to consider using the elements for similar operation that is user can achieving their task. For example, pushing a red button for a device it means stop the device. So, the meaning and actions are consistent to improve the ability to learn the system and can understand about the actions. Internal consistency with other elements in the system and external consistency refers consistent with other elements in environments. It is more difficult to achieve different system rarely observe the same design object.
Smart Interface for ubiquitous computing
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