Acme Is A Large Pharmaceutical Company Information Technology Essay

ACME is a large pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh. In all di

Cloud Computing is a Web-based processing, where services are hosted on the Internet. Resources like infrastructure, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand over the Internet.

It is in the 1960s that the concept of Cloud Computing first emerged as described by John McCarthy, “computation may someday be organized as a public utility”. From the 1960s to the 1990s, Cloud Computing has barely improved. In the 1990s, there was a major advancement of bandwidth that triggered the development of Cloud Computing., which came along in 1999, introduced the idea of distributing business software through websites. Four years later, Amazon Web Services expended the could-based services to storage, computation as well as human intelligence. Amazon Web Services then built the first Cloud Computing infrastructure that now offers worldwide access. C:UsersKanika AgarwalDesktopTECH COMMUNICATIONS300px-Cloud_computing.svg.png

Cloud computing has already become an integral part of people’s lives today. A search engine that we are use every day is the simplest example. As a recent technology, only few researches have been done in this area. Cloud Computing is still an involving paradigm. Therefore, an accurate and comprehensive definition of Cloud Computing is currently unavailable.

Cloud security involves the same fundamental issues as any computer security program. These include: restricting access to authorized users, maintaining the integrity of data, and ensuring the availability of data and services. When data and services reside on servers external to the campus, safeguarding those assets involves additional concern. Encrypting data transit is important, as are the service provider’s security procedures. Cloud computing typically uses server virtualization, and if the virtualization isn’t secure, data from one segment of a server could escape into another area.

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Cloud based immune systems are very efficient in solving problems related to computer software which use the idea of cloud computing. Such softwares gather the data and information from the cloud to process its application. A new approach for managing bugs in computer software, Dimmunix, has been developed by a team led by Prof. George Candea at EPFL. Deadlock immunity is a property by which programs, once afflicted by a deadlock pattern, develop the ability to avoid future occurrences of that deadlock pattern. Overtime, programs with such an “immune system” progressively increase their resistance to deadlocks. Dimmunix is a tool for giving software systems an immune system against deadlocks, without any assistance from programmers or users. It is well suited for general purpose software (desktop and enterprise applications, server software, etc.) and a recent extension allows application communities to collaborate in achieving enhanced immunity. It also enables entire networks of computers to cooperate in order to collectively avoid the manifestation of bugs in software.

Literature Review

The Dependable Systems Lab at EPFL in Switzerland has developed a new IT tool, called “Dimmunix”, which allows programs to prevent future recurrence of bugs without any assistance from the users or programmers. The approach, called “failure immunity”, starts working for the first time a bug occurs. It saves the signature of the bugs, and then observes how the computer reacts and records a trace. When the bug is about to attack again, Dimmunix uses these trace to recognize the error and automatically changes the execution so that the program continues to run smoothly. The use of cloud computing technology means the tool that can protect the entire network of computer bugs, even in an environment like the Internet. (Sparky3887, 2010)

With Dimmunix, the web browser learns how to avoid freezing when the bugs related to plug-ins happen. Moving a step further, using the latest version of cloud computing technology, they take an advantage of network and therefore immunize the entire communities of computer.

Dimmunix could be compared with the human immune system. When the body is infected, the immune system develops antibodies. Then, when the immune system encounters the same pathogen again, the body recognizes and knows how to effectively combat the disease.

Based on the principle of cloud computing, the computers participating in the Dimmunix application community benefit from vaccines automatically produced whenever the first manifestation of a given bug occurs within that community. The new version of Dimmunix programs is safely protected from the bugs, even in environments as unreliable as the internet.

At present, for the computer programmers, Dimmunix works for all programs used widely by private individuals and companies. It is useful for programs written in Java and C / C + +, obtained on real systems software (JBoss, MySQL, ActiveMQ, Apache httpd, MySQL, JDBC, Java JDK, and Limewire). (Carron-Gasco, 2010)

If the browser crashes or the application gives up the ghost, it might be required to send an error report to the creator of the program. Following the crashes, one would probably start to wonder if the error reports were even read. This is not the case for Dimmunix. It learns from crashes, bugs and errors without assistance from the user or for a programmer, to automatically prevent replication of the same deadlock in the future.

This approach starts to work for the first time a crash occurs. Dimmunix saves a signature of the error, see how the computer reacts and tracks a record. The next time the bug appears, Dimmunix will be able to recognize the error, step in and influence the application so as to not hit the same deadlock again. Dimmunix does not actually change the code or try to fix the bug. It does not touch the program at all. Dimmunix amends interleaving of program threads ‘from below’ the program in question, so as to run the program without any deadlocks.

With subtle manipulations of the program schedules, the deadlocks can be avoided without compromising the program code or influence the behaviour of typical applications. The Dependable Systems Lab boasts that Dimmunix has been proven to work on many real systems, using all kinds of programming languages such as MySQL, ActiveMQ, Apache and JDK forJava, while only introducing modest performance overhead. It has also proven itself to be effective in a test case of 100 errors, Dimmunix has managed to avoid all the deadlocks and run each test to completion.

The latest version of Dimmunix goes one step further. Inspired by the cloud computing, the software uses the experiences and information from an entire connected community to share bug reports and fixes.

This obviously opens the system up to a host of potential problems such as privacy worries and malicious denial-of-service attacks. There is actually no concern for privacy, because the deadlock signatures solely contain a fingerprint of a segment of execution and absolutely no data, neither of the user nor of the program itself. As for malicious attacks, the new Dimmunix employs a quick verification technique that allows each Dimmunix runtime to receive a deadlock signature and ‘check’ it before actually employing it to avoid hangs. (Brown, 2010)

Results and Discussion

Case Study

The concept of cloud computing evokes different perceptions in different people. The word “Cloud” itself reflects the idea of how it works. In cloud computing, processing is not in a specified, known or in a static place. Cloud computing is still in the phase of a developing technology. Currently there have been some attempts to use this technology in solving the immunity problems in modern computers.

Cloud based immune systems are very efficient in solving problems related to computer software which use the idea of cloud computing. Such software gathers the data and information from the cloud to process its application. These include:

Cloud software development platform: software platform to host cloud-based enterprise applications such as Windows Azure, Google

Software used to maintain cloud based infrastructure (Servers, storage, security and databases) like Amazon Web services and Sun Microsystems etc.

These software integrate the technique of cloud computing in the background to process their applications. The method of how this software uses this particular technique will be discussed below by randomly choosing a simple software more commonly known as Windows Azure.

Azure platform lessens its emphasis on the desktop by shifting more resources to web-based products. It just uses the end user computer to run the software. All the data and information are stored in the cloud. By doing so it has an access to vast amount of data stored in the cloud. Since it is open to a vast arena of cloud, the software has the ability to counter itself from errors that occur as it runs. (Tim Mther, 2009)

3.1 Problems in Cloud Computing

There are a large number of problems/errors that the cloud based software faces in the current era of computing. These errors can be divided into two main categories. They are viruses and issues due to immature technology. Some of them are listed below:

Kernal mode rootkits: This uses the hypervisor technology to run. It affects the system by installing itself as a hypervisor below the OS. By doing so, it becomes more difficult to detect.

Viruses: There are two kinds of viruses. They are non-resident and resident viruses. Non-resident resident viruses consist of finding and replicating modules. Finder modules find new files and call the replicating module to infect that particular file. Resident viruses, when executed, load into the memory and execute when a particular file of its interest start to run. (wikipedia, Computer Viruses)

Lock overhead: the extra resources using for locks like memory space allocated for locks, CPU time to initialise the lock and destroy a lock etc

Lock contention: This occurs whenever one process attempts to acquire a lock held by another process.

Deadlock: The situation when each of the two tasks is waiting for a lock that another task holds. Unless something is done, the two tasks will wait forever. (Wikipedia)

The above mentioned errors are some of the vulnerabilities that can be treated using cloud based immune systems. Here, the deadlock will be studied in detail in order to describe how it can be resolved using cloud based systems. The pros and cons of the particular system will also be discussed below.


A deadlock refers to a specific condition where two or more demanding performance are waiting for each other to free a resource, or many actions are waiting in a circular chain for resource. This results in both the programs ceasing their function. When we consider multiprocessing, in which many processes share a particular type of mutually exclusive resource, deadlock is commonly known as a “software lock” or “soft lock”. It is tremendously vulnerable in the case where multiple threads coexist in the same address space of a system. Dead lock remains the ultimate bug when there is a trade-off among two problems. The deadlocks are troubling mainly because there is no  solution to avoid them and only possible way to attack such a situation is by having a deadlock detector and a breaking mechanism or system. (Deadlocks, 2011)

There are four essential and adequate conditions known as “Coffman Conditions” for a deadlock to take place. These include:

Mutual exclusion condition-A particular resource that cannot be used by more than one program at a time

Hold and wait condition-Process which holds some resources but at the same time requests for new ones

No pre-emption condition-Resources cannot be forcibly removed from a process holding them but can only be released by the explicit action of the process.

Circular wait condition: More than one processes form a circular chain where each process waits for a resource while the subsequent process in that chain holds.

3.2.1 Avoidance or Prevention

Removing the mutual exclusion condition is one way to avoid the dead lock. Another way is by requiring a process, to request for all the resources they will need before starting up. As it will not be an efficient use of resources, it is better to use algorithms such as lock-free and wait-free algorithms , optimistic concurrency control and solution, that permit pre-emption and avoid circular waits. Dead locks can be avoided if certain information about processes is accessible in advance, but for many systems, it is impossible to know the required resource information well in advance. (Detecting and Ending Deadlocks)

3.2.2 Technology against deadlock occurrence

Algorithms which are used mainly to avoid the dead lock are:

Banker’s algorithm-This is used for the dead lock avoidance but requires the advance knowledge of resource limit, which is impossible most of the time.

Wait/Die and Wound/Wait algorithms-This uses a symmetry-braking technique. It can avoid the dead lock occurrence but it is only by allowing one of the processes to become an unsafe condition.

In most deadlock detections, process restarts are used by employing an algorithm to remove the deadlock by tracking resource allocation and process states. It is because detecting the possibility of a deadlock before it happen is very difficult. The deadlock detection techniques such as Deadlock Checker Tool and Model checking and detecting and Ending Deadlocks are examples. (Deadlocks, 2011)

Model checking-It constructs a ‘ finite state -model’ on which it performs analysis to find out all possible terminal sets in the model, in which each of them represents a dead lock.

Deadlock Checker Tool-It performs a variety of checks on parallel programs written in CSP in order to establish freedom from deadlock.

Detecting and Ending Deadlocks-The SQL Server Database Engine detects deadlock cycles within the Server and chooses one of the sessions as a deadlock victim to be terminated.

3.3 Dimmunix : A Tool for DEADLOCK

Operating reliably without any effect by bugs is one of the biggest challenges in Cloud Computing. Prof. George Candea and Cristian Zamfir worked on a project to solve this problem and came up with a solution, which was developed by DSL (Dependable Systems Lab) at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. More commonly known as “Dimmunix”, it has a self-healing mechanism and is called “failure immunity”. It studies the failure which occurs due to bugs for the first time and saves bug’s digital signature. It also observes how a computer reacts subsequently in order to overcome the failure and trace the track of the reaction.

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Dimmunix functions on an on-going basis. When the program threads make the method calls, Dimmunix observes its order in which they occur. It then identifies the specific method-call sequences that results in dead-lock. Using the identified method calls and program-execution processes, Dimmunix traces and stores it as a digital signature. (A Cloud-Based Immune System For Computers).When the bug tries to enter the system again, Dimmunix uses this signature to identify the bug and traces the track to prevent the system from deadlock which occurred in the past by the same bug. It does so by making changes in the sequence in which threads run, to prevent the conflicts that can cause deadlock in the host system. So the system continues to work smoothly without any interruption as it worked before the bug entered the system. (Failure Immunity Mechanisms for Embedded Software in Consumer Devices).

Dimmunix is comparable with our immune system, where both have similar functions. When we are infected, the human immune system develops antibodies to protect us from infectious agents. If our body encounters the same agent again, the immune system will recognize the pathogen and fight effectively to overcome the illness. Dimmunix also reacts for bugs in the same manner as how the immune system reacts for pathogen, and prevents system from deadlocks which has been described in the above section. (Deadlock). Dimmunix need no assistance from programmers or users and can act as an immune system in software systems to act against deadlock. For general purpose, softwares such as desktop OS, server software, and enterprise applications, Dimmunix is well suited. A recent extension of Dimmunix can even allow the application communities to collaborate in achieving superior immunity. (Garber) Quoting the lines of Professor George Candea, director of Dependable Systems Lab “We do not touch the program at all. Dimmunix modifies the interleaving of program threads ‘from underneath’ the program in question, so as to essentially trick the program into running without deadlocking.It’s almost as if the program is rolling down the hill, heading for a collision with a tree, and with a slight impulse from the side you alter the program’s trajectory just enough for it to avoid hitting the tree and continue running as if it was never in danger.” (, 2010)

Dimmunix is a prototype tool which does not need a central sever, platform-independent, and even runs on mobile devices. It has been built to work with application written in programming languages like Java, C and C++. It is,also, effective on various systems that consist of MySQL ,SQLite databases, Limewire peer to-peer file-sharing client JBoss application server, Apache ActiveMQ message broker, and Java Development Kit(JDK).

3.3.1 Dimmunix and Cloud computing technology

After the Dependable Systems Lab of Switzerland developed the technology called Dimmunix, it has undergone various kinds of experiments in enhancing that particular technology. One such experiment is the incorporation of cloud computing into the Dimmunix. What is cloud computing and how is it being integrated into Dimmunix? These are the two important questions in this scenario.

“Cloud computing is computation, software, data access and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that

delivers that services” (wikipedia, cloud computing). Figure X shows the cloud computing conceptual diagram. Cloud computing is actually a byproduct of the ease of access to remote computing sites provided by the internet. It always works in the form of web based application or tools. End users can use these tools through internet web browsers in such a way that they were installed locally on their own computers.

The key characteristics of cloud computing is that the cloud is in the cloud itself. That is the processing of the data is not taking place in a specified static places.

When Dimmunix integrates this technology, it can do wonders. In cloud computing, once Dimmunix is installed in the computers, it acts like a vaccine for the entire system in cloud. Once the signature of a bug is saved, it will be exchanged among other Dimmunix servers in the cloud and the entire cloud will be protected from a deadlock. The deadlocks need not occur in each and every computer in the network for the first time. If it has occurred in any workplace in a cloud, it is enough to protect the cloud from the same deadlock again. (Dimmunix: A crowdsourced immune system for computers)

This integration of cloud computing in Dimmunix opens the system up to a host of potential problems such as privacy worries and malicious denial of service attacks. Professor Candea assures that “there is actually no concern for privacy, because the deadlock signatures contain solely a fingerprint of a segment of execution [and] absolutely no data, neither of the user nor of the program itself.”

As for malicious attacks, “the new Dimmunix employs a quick verification technique that allows each Dimmunix runtime to receive a deadlock signature and ‘check’ it before actually employing it to avoid hangs.” (, 2010)


Users can install the Dimmunix on individual computers as an efficient immune system against deadlock as it does not need a central server for its function.

According to Researcher George Candea, assistant professor and director of EPFL’s Dependable Systems Lab, Dimmunix technology is platform-independent and could even run on mobile devices. (Garber)


Dimmunix is not user friendly as it cannot be used by everybody who is a computer literate.

Dimmunix can’t prevent the deadlock occurrence. It needs a particular dead lock to occur at least once in order to develop the immunity. That is, the system must experience a bug-related deadlock before the tool can create defences. It can be considered as Dimmunix’ key weakness.

Another incapability of the Dimmunix is that, its particular approach to handle dead lock situations does not work with deterministic bugs. It is because deterministic bugs can cause crashes under specific circumstances regardless of thread schedules. (Garber)


Currently Dimmunix is only being used to solve deadlock problems. But as seen in section x, there are a lot other bugs out in this computer world. It would be better if the technology can be developed in such a way that it can used to apply as an immune system to such a vast variety of problems.


stricts, it opened branches. So that why, they need communication technology, which way they can get all information about their product and that why they need a website.

In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors which is contributing in the country’s economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance – 1982, the development of this sector was accelerated. The ACME Laboratories Ltd, the pharmaceutical major and the flagship Company of the ACME Group, is a Manufacturer and Global exporter of Human, Herbal and Veterinary Pharmaceutical products. Since its inception in 1954,

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Chapter 2

Initial Study

2.1. Introduction:

In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors which is contributing in the country’s economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance – 1982, the development of this sector was accelerated. The ACME Laboratories Ltd, the pharmaceutical major and the flagship Company of the ACME Group, is a Manufacturer and Global exporter of Human, Herbal and Veterinary Pharmaceutical products. Since its inception in 1954, The ACME Laboratories Ltd, has been working relentlessly with a vision to ensure health, vigour and happiness for all and is on a perpetual quest for excellence.

2.2. Company Background:

ACME Group is one of the leading and diversified global conglomerates in Bangladesh, with offices in all major cities, employing over 3000+ employees and dedicated to bringing the highest quality products and services to our customers. They have an annual turnover of US $60 million with diversified interests in Pharmaceuticals, FMCG, Information Technology Services, Aviation Services, Printing & Packaging Services, Trading Services, C & F Services, Apparels and more. The ACME Laboratories Ltd, the pharmaceutical major and the flagship Company of the ACME Group. The history of The ACME Laboratories Ltd. dates back to 1954 when a proprietorship firm was founded to manufacture ethical drugs. It started with the modest introduction of a few oral liquid products. The late Hamidur Rahman Sinha was the founder of the firm and was the main visionary of the organization until his sad demise in 1994. The firm was converted into a private Limited company in the year 1976. Commercial operation at the modernized plant equipped with sophisticated and advanced facilities began toward the end of 1983. The Company has adopted the ISO-9001-2008 and WHO CGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practice) standards. All employees must adhere to the documented procedures and SOPs (Standard Operating Procedure).Many challenges were overcome successfully to transform the company from a small unit to what it is today. Out of about 300 pharmaceutical companies in the country, The ACME Labs is one of the top four.

2.3. Description of current system:

The ACME Laboratories Ltd. Has invested in state of the art formulation plants aligned to regulated market standards. Four plants based on the Dhaka site can produce pharmaceutical products to the highest GMP specifications. These plants have been designed by internationally recognized firms and equipped with the best machines that can currently be found on the European and US markets. The ACME Laboratories Ltd. normally based on a current local system, for what, it has a local larger marketing side all over in Bangladesh. Their total selling systems depend on marketing system. More than 1200 Medical Representatives of human sector, around 300 Medical Representatives of veterinary sector are the current worker of the marketing side of The ACME Laboratories Ltd. The MR is responsible to communicate with the customers. There are two kind of MR. One is called Buffer. Their duty is to stay in hospital and collect all prescription. And another Mr.’s duty is to communicate with the doctor and chemist and motivate them for the products and take orders. The Area manager is always responsible for the Medical Representatives. Their duties are to observe t the proper communication between MR and The ACME Laboratories Ltd. The Customer, If any problem occurs, he will report to Regional Sales Manager who is responsible for fulfill the requirements of MR and customers. His duty is also to replace and rearrange MR for all area zone and also concern for the delivery of product on time. The Assistant sales manager is one of the head of marketing side, who is direct communicating with the management. His duty is to inspect all marketing area and be aware about their service. He takes all responsibilities to build up their marketing proposal comparing with other competitors. So their total marketing system is based on door to door.

2.4. Problem with the current system:

If the current system of The ACME Laboratories Ltd. Is analyzed, then it shows some lacks of current system such as communication gap, mistiming, over cost. Like the total selling system is based on door to door. So sometimes the MR fails to meet with the customer. Though they can meet, they don’t get enough time to promote their product. Even sometimes the customer feels disturb for them. So this is a big weak point for the current system. Another weak point is timing. When an order has been taken, it was taken in paper. There are lots of order has been taken in a time. So it may be happened to lose one order or forget to rearrange on time. Today in every business sector, there are lots of competitions. So to buildup the business, it needs to be careful about the price. As there is communication gap between the MR and the management, they don’t get the right track for the product cost comparing with the competitors. So some products carry high value which is not affordable for our people. So the current marketing system of The ACME Laboratories Ltd is not a proper system for the business.

2.5. Boundary of the project:

As ACME is a group of companies, here we are only working for ACME Laboratories Ltd. And we only concern to improved the marketing system and introduce the products to customer. So, as we concern only for product, our aim is only to improve website system better than previous website.

2.6. Aims of the project:

If the company needs to fulfill their requirements and update their current system , it is suggested that they should have a software which one can communicate directly between the customers and the employees of The ACME Laboratories Ltd. This software can be web based, where the employees and the customers inform their requirement and the problem to the management. Even the company can promote their all new or old products in that software and the customer will get the information about their requirements and directly can order from this software. So it will save time and money.

2.7. Summary:

Though The ACME Laboratories Ltd is a leading Pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh but it has lots of competitors. So to continue with a good future, it should be upgrade it’s whole system .So for the marketing side, if they are able to get a software, which can be fulfill their requirements, They will get a standard feedback from this side. May be this will be a great step to lead in Pharmaceutical business.

Chapter 3

Feasibility study

3.1 Introduction:

In order to make wise investments in a marketplace experiencing increasing levels of risk, companies are turning to feasibility studies to determine, if they should offer new products, services or undertake a new business endeavor. The purpose of a feasibility study is to determine if a business opportunity is possible, practical and viable. So, when there’ll be a proposal for the improvement of The ACME Laboratories, firstly this should be need to know that are they alright or do they agree with the conditions of the proposal system?

3.2 Alternate solutions:

The current system of ACME Laboratories is totally manual. It totally depends on the marketing employee. So the management is always moving their decision according to employees report. For that reason some times they facing commutation problem and misguided. To solve this problem, they need a proper solution which may be based on computer program system such as may be a software or website.

3.3 The proposed system:

There may be a proposal, which we suggest and decided by the management of ACME Laboratories, to make a website, which can be solve the current problems and guide the company for making the system easier.

Advantages: (of the web site):

If the company accept the proposal of website, they will be benefited in sever always. Like, it’ll solve the communicate problem between the employees and the management. Company can save the cost, what they spend for the knocking to the customer and also they can save their time as well to take appointments and order from the customers. So, this website can bring a new system for the company, which will lead the company to the go further.

Disadvantage: (of the web site):

There’ll be some disadvantages for this proposal. First they need setup everything for use a website. It’ll take some cost. And some of employees are not familiar with the internet and website. So it will face problem to operate it. Even the company will always need the internet connection.If they face any problem for connection,may be it’ll stop the whole system and make it delay to process.

3.4 Feasibility consideration

3.4.1 Technical feasibility:

When, there’ll be a proposal for a company, Firstly it needs to know ,the system of the proposal are suitable for the system. Like, for the website, first, it should be notice about the technical feasibility of the company. Because ,they have to have computers for every sectors, where there need to be communicate. And also need to be noticed about the flexibility of connection. If, there is a positive result about the technical feasibility, then the proposal can be proceed further.

3.4.2 Economical feasibility:

For the proposal, it need to be ensure about the economical feasibility. Because for the web application they need some computers .So it’ll take some cost. Also they have to pay the internet bill and a charge for the Domain and hosting charge per year. So, if the company accepts the budget for the proposal, then it’ll be carry on.

3.4.3 Operational feasibility:

When there will be a technical proposal, it should be notice about the operational feasibility. Because, they need to operate the system and update all new information. So they must need to know about the operational knowledge about the website. Maybe, some employee needs to be trained up. So, if they are able to do it, then the proposal can be proceed on.

3.5 Summary:

This feasibility consideration is helping the developer to understand if the company has the ability to use this website. Developer can also understand the range of the company which can help him to develop the website.

Chapter 4

Requirement analysis & specification

4.1 Introduction:

ACME is a large pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh. In all districts, it opened branches. So that why, they need communication technology, which way they can get all information about their product and that why they need a website, which can fulfill these requirements. To get information about their requirement, we took an interview so that the website, which we are going to make fulfill their needs.

4.2 Interview record:

As, we are going to make a website for ACME Laboratories, at first, we need to know their requirements. For that reason, we took an appointment with the company Assistant Sales Manager Mr. Jafarullah. Interview was arranged on 23rd May, 2010 at 11:00am. On that day, we met with Mr. Jafarullah and gathered the requirements and record all details. This interview helped us a lot to get an idea about the website.

4.3 DFD of existing system:

Require Products

Process product


Sales representative



Product info

Confirm availability

Product Order

Process Order


Sales representative


Confirm order


Order info

Response pay

Figure: DFD diagram for current system

4.4 Requirements catalogue:

Requirement ID


Requirement name

Products Info

Business activity

Marketing Products





Functional requirement

Input products info


To introduce current product to customer


Entry products list

Requirement ID


Requirement name

Update Info

Business activity

Marketing for new products




Company employee



Functional requirement

Add new products info


Introduce the new products to customer


Add / Delete products list

4.5 DFD of proposed system:


Product info

Process Products



Enter data


Select products for order

Saves quantity information



View product



Product info

Figure: DFD diagram for proposed system

4.6 Elementary process description:


Process name



Information collection

Collected information from Assistant sales manager of ACME Laboratories Ltd.


Products list

They provide a book, from where we got the product name and details.


Make a proposal for a website

We submitted a proposal for a website and they approved it.


The required of website

Required a website where they can update or delete information by themselves.


Type of website

This will be a dynamic website, what we are going to make.


Overall progress

We showed a demo to the assistant sales manager and he was impressed.

4.7 Entity relationship diagram:



Sales Representative

4.8 Entity description:

In the DFD diagram of the existing system, name of some entities have been mentioned. Description of these entities is given below.

Entity name


Customer Name

Responsible for bye product.


Responsible for Data store.

Sales Representative

Responsible for Order product.

4.9 Data catalog:

Data item


Database Process


Input all data of the current product



Manufacturing Date


Update new product

If any new product is made, that would be updated.


Delete product

If they want to remove product from database, they can delete it


4.10 Summary:

At the end of this stage, requirement analysis and specification helped us to gather all information and idea of our proposed website.

Chapter 5

System deign

5.1. Introduction:

Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is a most crucial phase in the development of a system. Normally, the design proceeds in stages

5.2. Logical design and description:

ACME Laboratories Ltd



Latest News

Welcome to ACME

Copyright © 2010. DIIT

5.3. Sitemap:

About ACME







Add Products

5.4. Summary:

ACME website Sample has been designed. There sketches will be used to design. There are some logical diagram have been added on this document.

Chapter 6


6.1. Home page:

if( $_GET){

if( file_exists( ‘includes/pages/’.$_GET[‘page’].’.php’))

include( ‘includes/pages/’.$_GET[‘page’].’.php’ );

else include( ‘includes/pages/default.php’ );

}else include( ‘includes/pages/default.php’ );


Chapter 7


7.1. Introduction:

Testing a product seems very simple. It involves ensuring the product works as intended and does not fail. This is what we strive to achieve when testing program code. When some one read text books on testing there he/she will find that verification and validation is the name given to the checking and analysis processes that ensure the software conforms to its specification and meets the needs requirements of the customer.

7.2. Unit test:


Value entered

Expected result

Runtime result


Add Product





Add Product

HP (Herbal)




Add Product

AP (Herbal)




7.3. Link test:



Expected result

Runtime result



























7.4. Summary:

The documentation of testing is critically important and we descried a scheme that provides both good documentation and a framework for test management. I gave some guidelines for test design, but recognized that this is a difficult problem which cannot be automated.

Chapter 8


8.1. Introduction:

The implementation phase is typically terminated b a formal acceptance process, when the business manager declares that she/he is satisfied that the system meets its objectives and sign off takes place.

New Computer equipment needed.

Users need to be trained.

Data transferred from an old web system.

New data entered.

8.2. Maintenance plan:

The maintenance stage begins once the implementation is complete. This is typical of many medium size organizations. In larger companies, a full-time maintenance team may carry out all this work. Maintenance includes error fixing, updates and modifications which are necessary because requirements are incorrectly understood or specified, requirements analysis is not complete in time, and the needs of the business have changed.

8.3. Summary:

Implementation and maintenance is most important part of the project. The ACME must use a responsible person to take responsibility.

Chapter 9

Limitations and future plan

9.1. Limitations:

9.1.1. This site is not fully dynamic (Only products page is dynamic)

9.1.2. Contacts page is not work.

9.1.3. Menu cannot add because there have a flash.

9.2. Future plan:

9.2.1. This site will be a fully dynamic.

9.2.2. Contacts page will be work when page is hosting a web.

9.2.3. Admin will be added new menu.

Chapter 10


All work successfully completed. Now the website is ready for use. During implementation careful steps had to be taken so that it can get desired environment as needed. Limitations and future plan will be helpful for developing a more efficient website next time.


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